National Repository of Grey Literature 36 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Photochemical generation of volatile species of nickel for analytical atomic spectrometry methods
Šoukal, Jakub ; Musil, Stanislav (advisor) ; Kratzer, Jan (referee)
This thesis deals with optimization of conditions of photochemical generation of volatile species of nickel for atomic absorption spectrometry. The volatile species of nickel were generated in the flow arrangement, when sample was injected to a stream of a reaction medium. Either formic acid was used as the reaction medium or formic acid with the addition of formate anions. Two types of a generator were tested, a generator with a PTFE tube wrapped around a mercury UV lamp and a high efficiency generator with an inside channel. At the same time, two types of a gas-liquid separator were tested. Diffusion flame was used as an atomizer due to its high robustness. Quartz atomizer didn't provide higher sensitivity and measurements had worse repeatability. All the parameters affecting atomization in the diffusion flame were optimized (flow rates and composition of gases, observation height). In the next section, conditions of generation (irradiation time, HCOOH concentration, addition of formate anions) were optimized. Interferences of inorganic acids in photochemical generation were investigated as well. It was found out that the generator with the inside channel provided slightly higher sensitivity and thus generation efficiency than the generator with the PTFE tube wrapped around. Transmission of...
Mercury Content in Atmosphere and Wood-Decaying Mushrooms.
Švehla, Jaroslav ; Kratzer, Jan ; Lepšová, A. ; Svoboda, Karel
Polypores can serve as long-term bioindicators of air pollution by heavy metals. The aim of this work was to investigate their potential to monitor concentration of mercury species in the air.
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HG-AAS with atomization in a dielectric barrier plasma discharge: method optimization and analytical applications
Zurynková, Pavla ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis was to optimize in detail atomization conditions for antimony hydride in a novel plasma atomizer based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) with atomic absorption spetrometric detection. Argon was found as the best DBD discharge gas employing a flow rate of 50 ml min-1 Ar while the DBD power was optimized at 30 W. Analytical figures of merit including interference study of As, Se and Bi have been subsequently investigated and the results compared to those found in an externally heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA). The limit of detection reached in DBD (0.15 ng ml-1 Sb) is comparable to that observed in QTA (0.14 ng ml-1 Sb). Finally, possibility of stibane preconcentration in a DBD atomizer was studied. Preconcentration efficiency of 102 ± 6 % was found under optimized conditions.
Application of a dielectric barrier discharge plasma atomizer to hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-DBD-AAS)
Albrecht, Michal ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Červený, Václav (referee)
Atomization of plumbane in a novel dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma atomizer has been optimized employing detection by atomic absorption spectrometry. The performance of the DBD atomizer was subsequently compared to that of a conventional externally heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA). Lead from a standard solution was converted to plumbane by chemical reduction with sodium borohydride using an identical hydride generator for both atomizers. Argon at a flow rate of 175 cm3 min-1 was found as the best discharge gas while the DBD power supply rate was optimized to 22 W. The inner surface of the DBD atomizer was passivated by dimethyldichlorosilane (DMDCS) resulting in a twofold increase of sensitivity. Sensitivity of 0.10 s ng-1 Pb and a limit of detection of 0.82 ng cm-3 Pb were reached in the DBD atomizer with DMDCS-modified surface under the optimum atomization conditions. Better performance was achieved in a QTA atomizer, in which detection limit of 0.59 ng cm-3 Pb was reached and sensitivity was doubled (0.22 s ng-1 Pb) in comparison with DMDCS- modified DBD.
Selenium determination by HG-AAS with preconcentration and atomization in a dielectric barrier plasma discharge
Duben, Ondřej ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Rychlovský, Petr (referee)
The aim of this thesis was to optimize atomization conditions for selenium hydride in a novel plasma atomizer based on dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) using atomic absorption spectrometry as a detector. Analytical characteristics have been subsequently determined and compared to those reached in a conventional externally heated quartz tube atomizer which was replaced by a sofisticated design of a multiatomizer (MMQTA) in this work. The limit of detection reached in DBD (0,24 ng ml−1 Se) is slightly worse to that observed in MMQTA (0,15 ng ml−1 Se). On the contrary, slightly better resistance towards interferences of Sb, Bi and As was observed in DBD atomizer in comparison with MMQTA. Possibility of selenium preconcentration in a DBD atomizer was studied reaching an overall preconcentration efficiency of 75 ± 5%. The detection limit in a preconcentration mode employing preconcentration period of 300 s has reached 0,012 ng ml−1 Se. Key words: hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, dielectric barrier discharge, hydride atomization, hydride trapping, selenium
A novel AAS atomizer based on a dielectric barrier plasma discharge
Novák, Petr ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee)
Atomization of arsine in a novel hydride atomizer for atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS) was thoroughly optimized. This plasma atomizer is based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). Sensitivity and detection limit reached 0.48 s ng-1 As and 0.16 ng ml-1 As, respectively, under optimum atomization conditions (Ar discharge using a flow rate of 60 ml min-1 Ar, DBD power 17 W). Analytical figures of merit reached in DBD are comparable to those found in an externally heated quartz tube multiatomizer (MMQTA) that was chosen as a model of conventional approach to hydride atomization in HG-AAS. An extent of interferences (Se, Sb, Bi) during As determination was investigated comparing both MMQTA and DBD atomizers. The later one was found to be more resistant towards interferences. A simple preconcentration of As in a DBD atomizer was reached after oxygen introduction into the Ar plasma in the DBD resulting in analyte retention in the atomizer followed by its volatilization once the oxygen flow is switched off. Preconcentration efficiency of 100 % was reached and detection limit improvement by a factor of ten was achieved (0.01 ng ml-1 As, preconcentration period 300 s).
Using of chemical mercury cold vapor generation for speciation analysis of selected mercury compounds employing HPLC and AAS
Králová, Pavlína ; Červený, Václav (advisor) ; Kratzer, Jan (referee)
The aim of this diploma thesis was to verify the usability of the chemical generation of mercury cold vapor for speciation analysis of selected mercury compounds using high - performance liquid chromatography coupled within atomic absorption spectrometry in the determination of mercury in real tap water samples. In this work, mercuric chloride, methylmercury, ethylmercury and phenylmercury were selected as model analytes. In the first part, the working conditions of chemical generation of mercury cold vapor for each of the selected specie of mercury were optimized. Optimized equipment was used to measure the calibration dependence for each specie and the basic characteristics of the method were established. After optimization of the chemical generation, HPLC column was connected prior this derivatization step and in resulted combined apparatus HPLC - CVG - QTAAS, the separation step was optimized . At optimized conditions, the calibration dependence was measured for each specie and the basic characteristics of the developed method including HPLC separation were established. In conclusion, the proposed analytical method was tested on real flowing tap water samples. Because of low content of mercury species in these samples, the recovery of the method was established when comparing the signal of...
Spectrometric determination of selected metals in the samples from old ecological burden area
Zurynková, Pavla ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on heavy metals pollution in the Králíky town and its vicinity, located in the Pardubice region. This region was selected because there had been a Tesla factory producing fluorescent lamps. Moreover, there is also a waste disposal of the fluorescent lamps wasters and other dangerous waste located about two kilometers far from the former factory. Soil samples from the waste disposal area as well as river sediment, samples taken in the Tichá Orlice river and the Králický brook have been analyzed Mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper and arsenic levels in the samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. The total mercury content has also been measured with single-purpose atomic absorption spectrometer AMA-254. An optimization of leaching conditions of the elements was performed prior the analysis of the samples employing certified reference material. High levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and copper have been found in the waste disposal area. Regarding the sediment samples the highest levels of pollution have been detected near outfall of the sewage water from the industrial area in the Králíky town (former Tesla factory and recent metal plating industry). The concentration of heavy metals in other sediment...
Determination of selected elements in plant extracts by atomic absorption spectrometry
Rydlová, Lenka ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Kratzer, Jan (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine selected elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Zn, Se) in plant extracts and juices by atomic absorption spectrometry using different types of atomization. Each method has been optimized for determination of the mentioned elements. For flame atomization it has been used optimization of height of the primary radiation from the hollow cathode lamp over the edge of the burner. The height was generally between 6.0 and 8.0 mm. Then there have been optimized flow of each component of the flame (acetylene, air, nitrous oxide) and it has been set location of the hollow cathode lamp and the flame. Under the optimized conditions basic characteristics describing the method of the determination of mentioned elements have been measured (LOD for sodium 2.13 µg L-1 , for magnesium 2.44 µg L-1 , for potassium 11.3 µg L-1 , for calcium 15.6 µg L-1 , for zinc 6.04 µg L-1 , for selenium 0.34 µg L-1 ). In the next part of the thesis the optimized methods have been used for measuring concentration of all elements in real samples. After the preparation of the samples including dilution, addition of various reagents etc., they have been atomized by flame in an atomic absorption spectrometer (Na, Mg, K, Ca, Zn) and determined, or converted to a volatile compound (Se) and determined by...
Extraction of Selected Mercury Compounds from Real Samples for Speciation Analysis Employing RP-HPLC-UV-CVG-QTAAS
Kolorosová, Alžběta ; Červený, Václav (advisor) ; Kratzer, Jan (referee)
The extraction of mercury species (methylmercury, ethylmercury, phenylmercury and inorganic mercury(II)) from fish tissue, its determination by reverse phase HPLC, UV-photochemical generation of cold vapour, and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry is described in this work. Various extraction agents and digestion methods were compared in order to find the best alternative. The mixture of 6.25% tetramethylammonium hydroxide and 0.05 mol·l-1 hydrochloride acid was chosen as the best extraction agent. In addition to the high extraction efficiency, the solution involved positively not only UV-photochemical generation, but also separation of observed species. On the contrary, the poor repeatability was achieved with the microwave-assisted digestion due to the proved sorption of mercury species on the Teflon vessels. Therefore, the extraction by high temperature (50-60 řC) in glass bottles was preferred. The results of the determination of the mercury species after the extraction from the real samples were compared to the outcomes obtained by AMA 254. The proposed extraction technique together with the RP-HPLC-UV-CVG-QTAAS is suitable for the speciation analysis of mercury.

National Repository of Grey Literature : 36 records found   previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record:
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2 Kratzer, J.
5 Krätzer, Jan
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