National Repository of Grey Literature 14 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Interactions between gut microorganisms and brain
Fajstová, Alena ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Intestinal microbiota communicates with brain via various cooperating pathways including neuronal, endocrine and immune. Pathogenic and commensal bacteria produce great amounts of neurotransmitters and various other metabolites which can interact with brain. Presence of bacteria can also induce immune system response which can influence brain through cytokines and other mediators. Last but not least the communication can be mediated through nerves, especially the vagus nerve. The brain can influence the intestines through sympathic and parasympathic efferent nerves and through hormones. Gut colonization by nonpathogenic commensal bacteria is crucial for proper brain development. If this doesn't happen in certain period psychiatric disorders such as depression or autism can occur later in life. Various pathological conditions might be ameliorated or fully reversed by administration of probiotic bacteria. Aim of this thesis is to briefly review factors influencing gut microbiota, its influence on the brain development and the role of probiotics in the therapy of intestinal and psychiatric diseases. Keywords: gut microbiome, brain, neuroendocrine regulation, probiotic, neurotransmitter
Effect of intestinal microflora on the activity of higher brain centers
Arnold, Tomáš ; Hock, Miroslav (advisor) ; Melkes, Barbora (referee)
Abstract Intestinal microflora consists of large bacterial community that resides in the intestines, especially the colon, and lives in symbiosis with the host. It consists mainly representatives of the four bacterial strains (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria). It has already been shown that the proportional representation of the bacterial strains in time does not change much, but the research of the last decade have shown irrefutable effect between the change of diet and composition of the intestinal microflora. In addition, there is evidence of changes in the representation of bacterial strains in the course of development of certain intestinal pathologies such as inflammatory bowel disease. More and more are starting to emerge papers describing the influence of altered intestinal microflora respectively its representatives, on the activity and function of the CNS. This interaction of the digestive system and CNS seems to be bidirectional and mediated by several different pathways. Finally, it shows that dysbiosis of the intestinal microflora promotes anxiety and depression that can lead to the urge to prematurely terminate life. The aim of this work is to provide a comprehensive view of this relatively young, but also very interesting...
Changes in neuroglia in degenerative disorders of the central nervous system
Kirdajová, Denisa ; Zach, Petr (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Neurodegenerative diseases are a serious disorders of the central nervous system characterized by neuronal loss with a subsequent damage of the brain. This damage may have diverse consequences like a gradual loss of memory and intellect, problems with musculoskeletal system and not least death. Causes of these diseases are not yet fully understood. In addition to neurons neuroglia also plays an important role in these diseases of the central nervous system. In neurodegenerative diseases are astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia and NG2 cells involved in their many aspects. They participate in the protective as well as in the detrimental aspect of these diseases. This work, therefore, presents an overview of previously acquired knowledge of neuroglia in various types of degenerative disorders of the CNS (Alzheimer`s disease, Parkinson`s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Wernicke encephalopathy, HIV associated dementia, frontotemporal dementia, vascular dementia). Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of spinal cord injury
Dubišová, Jana ; Kubinová, Šárka (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Poranenie miechy a jeho terapia pomocou mezenchymálnych kmeňových buniek Abstract Patients with serious spinal cord injury (SCI) have a little chance of a full return to their original life. This kind of injuries leaves lifelong consequences as on the patients themselves, as well as their surroundings and family. Considerable financial resources are, worldwide, granted for reintegratation of these patients into society. This work focuses on the description of spinal cord injury, its complexity and the possibility of treatment by new therapeutic methods of mesenchymal cells. The first section discusses the severity of spinal cord injury and its pathophysiology with the performance of subsequent clinical phases. The second part is dedicated to new treatment methods and approaches, with an emphasis on cell therapy. The third part presents treatment method using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, such as their ability to migration to the injured area and the possibility of genetic modification, made them a great candidates for the treatment of serious injuries. Keywords Spinal cord injury, stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, cell therapy, regenerative medicine
Mechanisms of activation and modulation of vanilloid TRP channels
Boukalová, Štěpána ; Vlachová, Viktorie (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (referee)
Štěpána Boukalová Mechanisms of activation and modulation of vanilloid TRP channels TRPV1 and TRPV3 are thermosensitive ion channels from the vanilloid subfamily of TRP receptors. TRPV1, which is primarily expressed in nociceptive sensory neurons, is an important transducer of painful stimuli and is also involved in the detection of noxious heat. TRPV3 is expressed mainly in the skin where it regulates proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Similarly to voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels, TRP receptors are comprised of four subunits, each with six transmembrane segments (S1-S6). Using mutational approach, we tried to elucidate the role of S1 in TRPV1 functioning. Our results indicate that the extracellular portion of S1 plays a crucial role in TRPV1 gating. TRPV1 channels with a conservative mutation of positively charged residue in this region (R455K substitution) were overactive. However, they were neither activated nor potentiated by low pH; on the contrary, protons stabilized the closed conformation of this mutant channel. Very similar phenotypic properties were found in other TRPV1 mutants with substitution in S4/S5-S5 region and in the pore helix. In Kv channels, extracelular portion of S1 forms a small contact surface with the pore helix, which allows efficient transmission of...
Excitation-Contraction and Excitation-Transcription Coupling in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Alterations in Experimental Hypertension and Vascular Remodeling
Misárková, Eliška ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express considerable phenotype plasticity. They are able to change their phenotype in vivo if necessary. It is important to know that during this phenotype switch the expression of transport proteins and channels is modified, which results in significant alteration of Ca2+ signaling in smooth muscle cells. In differentiated cells, which represent contractile phenotype, there are dominant rapid, transient events in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (Ca2+ i), while the resting cytosolic Ca2+ i concentration is low. In differentiated cells these Ca2+ i events are mainly caused by two components of the Ca2+ signalling pathways: 1) extracellular Ca2+ influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (L-type VGCC) in plasma membrane, and 2) depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores via ryanodin receptors located on sarcoplasmic reticulum. Rapid Ca2+ i oscillations are quickly reduced by numerous Ca2+ ATPases of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane. Proliferating vascular smooth muscle cells are characterized by a long-lasting Ca2+ i oscillations accompanied by sustained elevation of basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration. During phenotype switch from contractile phenotype to proliferative phenotype there is decreased Ca2+ ATPase activity, and store-operated Ca2+...
Synchronization of peripheral circadian clocks during ontogenesis.
Paušlyová, Lucia ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
The circadian system is an important coordinator of physiological functions of a mammalian organism. It comprises of a central oscillator represented by cells in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of hypothalamus (SCN) and peripheral oscillators in most if not all cells of peripheral tissues. The peripheral oscillators, similarly to the central ones, generate circadian oscillations at the level of so called clock genes and their protein products. In peripheral tissues, oscillations in expression of the individual clock genes are autonomous, however, they need to be synchronized to ensure their robust rhythmic expression. The peripheral clocks are synchronized mainly by rhythmical signals from the SCN, including signals regulating food intake. Disturbances in the clock gene expressions, as well as impaired synchronization signals, can result in various pathophysiological states. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain is a convenient animal model to study potential connection between the disturbed circadian system and progressive development of hypertension and metabolical diseases in mammals. Various studies have shown differences in the rhythmical expression of clock genes between SHR strain and normotensive Wistar/Wistar-Kyoto strain. The aim of this thesis is to provide insight into the early...
Cytoskeletal organization of senescent cell
Kolářová, Věra ; Hodný, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
This bachelor thesis discusses the phenomenon of cellular senescence in the context of cytoskeleton organization. Differences in the organization of cytoskeleton be- tween normal proliferative cells and senescent cells are being compared. Cellular cytoskele- ton is a very dynamic structure and influences the function of the cell within a tissue. This thesis gathers current evidence about senescence and cytoskeleton and indicates possible directions for future research. Keywords: cellular senescence, antitumour barrier, cell migration, cytoskeleton, microtubules, cancer 1
NMDA receptors in astrocytes: their role in ischemic brain injury
Valný, Martin ; Anděrová, Miroslava (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, and its transmission is responsible for higher brain functions, such as learning, memory and cognition. Glutamate action is mediated by variety of glutamate receptors, of which N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are the most remarkable due to their high Ca2+ permeability and complex pharmacology. Despite the widespread expression of NMDA receptors in astroglial cells in different brain regions, they have been studied mostly in neurons. Therefore, the role of astroglial NMDA receptors under physiological conditions as well as in pathological states, such as cerebral ischemia, is not fully understood. The aim of this work was to elucidate the presence, composition and function of these receptors in astrocytes under physiological conditions and after focal cerebral ischemia. For this purpose, we used transgenic (GFAP/EGFP) mice, in which astrocytes express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of human promotor for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) enabling astrocyte isolation and their collection via fluorescence-activated cell sorting. We performed single-cell RT-qPCR analysis of astrocytes isolated from the cortex of adult mice. The analyzed cells were isolated from the uninjured brains of 50...
Suprachiasmatic nuclei as a daily clock and calendar
Pačesová, Dominika ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) harbor the master circadian pacemaker in mammals which is responsible for control and coordination of circadian rhythms throughout the body. They are a paired structure in the hypothalamus, located just above the optic chiasm, consisting of approximately 20 000 neurons. Due to their specific properties, the SCN have a unique position within the circadian system. They are connected with retina and, therefore, they can directly receive information about changes in external light/dark cycle. The individual SCN neurons are independent autonomous circadian oscillators which are inter-connected in a communication network. This network allows the individual SCN oscillators to synchronize among each other and thus to increase the precision and robustness of the oscillations. This work is focused to summarize the knowledge on the structure and function of the SCN at the level of single cells, subpopulations of cells and the whole SCN. The specific goal of this work is a summary of the factors that determine their central role within the circadian system.

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