National Repository of Grey Literature 3 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Lipid rafts and their role in transmembrane signaling mediated by G protein-coupled receptors
Ševčíková, Adéla ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Funda, Jiří (referee)
Membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, known as lipid rafts and caveolae, contribute to many cellular processes including cholesterol homeostasis or lateral segregation of membrane proteins. This bachelor thesis describes the role of these membrane microdomains on transmembrane signaling mediated by G protein-coupled receptors. This is the most numerous and diverse family of receptors in mammalian cells that can affect a large number of physiological functions of the organism. A large amount of GPCR located in the membrane microdomains that concentrate specific signal components increase the variability of signaling. This issue is very complicated because the methods used to characterize these variable structures have limitations and each of the receptors exhibits specific behaviour. Key words: GPCRs, G proteins, lipid rafts, caveolae, transmembrane signaling
Role of PGC-1 coactivators in the regulation of mitochondrial function in adipose tissue
Funda, Jiří ; Janovská, Petra (advisor) ; Mlejnek, Petr (referee)
Metabolic pathways in adipose tissue affect the whole-body energy homeostasis. De novo lipogenesis and futile metabolic cycling based on lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification which is engaged in regulation of fatty acid level in bloodstream are occuring there. These processes are partly regulated by nuclear receptor PPARγ. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative phosphorylation in adipocytes are controlled by interacting of PPARγ with transcriptional coactivators PGC-1α and PGC-1β. The aims of this thesis were to find out whether PGC-1β is connected with regulation of futile cycling and de novo lipogenesis in white adipose tissue and also how specific inactivation of PGC-1β gene in adipose tissue affects phenotype of mice during short-term cold exposure or treatment based on high fat diet enriched by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in combination with mild calorie restriction. The results show that inactivation of PGC-1β probably does not affect futile cycling based on lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification. In mice with PGC-1β ablation compensation in weight of brown adipose tissue was observed as well as increase in the gene expresion of nuclear receptors PPAR, transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and UCP1 during cold exposure. Even though the inactivation of PGC-1β in brown adipose tissue...
Physiological relevance of futile cycling based on lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification in white adipose tissue
Funda, Jiří ; Flachs, Pavel (advisor) ; Kolář, David (referee)
AJ The thesis deals with the task of futile metabolic cycling, mainly on the cycle including lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification, which takes place in white adipose tissue. This cycle plays some essential roles in organism, including regulation of important metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism and also exhibit certain influence on the whole body energy metabolism. First part of the thesis is focused on general properties of futile metabolic cycles and shows some examples of their functions in organism. Next part presents detail view on single steps making the whole lipolysis/re-esterification cycle. Considerable part deals with the ways of regulation of futile cycle activity. This approach may increase an impact of futile cycling on processes under its influence. Physiological relevance of futile metabolic cycle based on lipolysis and fatty acid re-esterification in white adipose tissue was described in numerous studies. This thesis shows their results for a purpose to provide a summary of functions of this system in physiology of mammals. Key words futile metabolic cycle, lipolysis, re-esterification, fatty acids, adipose tissue

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