National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The Possible Assessments of Unprofessional Exposures of Low Frequency Noise
Potužníková, Dana ; Fiala, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Argalášová, Ĺubica (referee)
v anglickém jazyce The possible assessments of unprofessional exposures of low frequency noise Introduction: Along with technical development, the number of sources of low frequency noise increases in the human environment and the number of complaints from people exposed to noise from these sources increases as well. The statutory limit for non-professional exposure to low frequency noise has not yet been established (due to the limited amount of data on low frequency noise exposure risks) in the EU countries (USA) and no WHO recommendations have been issued in this area. For these reasons, the hygienic limit for municipal/non-professional exposure to low frequency noise was not specified in the Czech Republic. Objecticve: The present dissertation thesis was to investigate whether the short-term experimental exposure to low frequency noise with the tonic component induces significant changes in the circadian rhythm of cortisol and alpha-amylase in saliva in the experimental set of volunteers. Saliva is a biological material that allows low-invasiveness collection. The work was supposed to assess whether possible changes could be used as objective indicators of the presence of the stress response to the noise exposure. Material and metods: An experimental study was conducted on a set of 100...
Epidemiology of sporadic forms of colorectal cancer in terms of preventions and the possibility of early diagnostic.
Schneiderová, Michaela ; Bencko, Vladimír (advisor) ; Krška, Zdeněk (referee) ; Hudečková, Henrieta (referee)
Thanks to the latest achievements in diagnostics, surgery and oncology, the overall perspective of colorectal cancer has changed significantly. There are no doubts that we deal with a complex disease, requiring multidisciplinary approach and assessment. Only this approach can enable patients to survive longer and maintain acceptable quality of there lives. Taking a long view over several decades, the steep rise in incidence of this malignancy was strongly alarming. It is partly a penalty for a prolongation of life expectance, since one of the risk factors is age. Knowing the way of life and dietary customs of our ancestors, one cannot deny that the change of lifestyle including dietary habits, as well as decrease of physical activity, obesity, stress, unsuitable thermal processing of food produced in bulk, consumption of immoderate amount of red meat, limited intake of raw vegetable and fruits, excessive intake of xenobiotics, such as medication or cosmetic products, excessive alcohol consumption, particularly beer, nicotinism, environmental pollutants, etc. contribute to the increase of this cancer incidence. All the above mentioned factors have led over the time to a formation and development of numerous so called civilization diseases, among which rates the colorectal cancer (CRC). Despite the...
Epidemiological aspects of inflammatory rheumatic diseases and diffusional diseases of binding tissue.
Hánová, Petra ; Pavelka, Karel (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Horák, Pavel (referee)
v anglickém jazyce Introduction: No information was known about frequency of common inflammatory disorders in rheumatology in the Czech Republic. Aims of the study: To estimate the standardized annual incidence (INC) and point prevalence (PREV) of six diseases (rheumatoid arthritis-RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis-JIA, gout, psoriatic arthritis-PsA, ankylosing spondylitis-AS, reactive arthritis-ReA) in a population-based study in two regions of the Czech Republic (CR). Methods: INC: Incident cases were registered on condition that the definite diagnosis was confirmed according to existing classification criteria during the study period. PREV was studied on the basis of identification of established diagnoses at a time point. Crude rates were standardized for age and sex. Results: Both INC and PREV are shown per 100.000 inhabitants. RA INC:31 (95%CI 20-42), PREV:610 (95%CI 561-658). Gout-INC:41 (95%CI 28-53), PREV:300 (95% CI 266-334). JIA-INC: 13 (95% CI 1-20), PREV:140 (95%CI 117-280). PsA-INC:3,6 (95% CI 1-8), PREV:49 (95%CI 40-60). AS-INC:6 (95% CI 3-11), PREV:94 (95% CI 94-109). ReA-INC:9 (95% CI 6-15), PREV:91 (95% CI 78-106). Conclusion: This is the first population-based study estimating annual incidence and prevalence rates of the most common rheumatological disorders in the Czech...
"Disaster, war, conflict, complex emergencies and International public health risks."
Quinn V, John Michael ; Bencko, Vladimír (advisor) ; Tuček, Milan (referee) ; Chlíbek, Roman (referee)
PhD Thesis Abstract: John Michael Quinn V In the 21st century, the prevention of illness, disease and risks to health ushered in public health and medical practice with mixed results. War, hybrid warfare, conflict, complex emergencies and disasters remain significant public health risks and areas of strategic concern; focused epidemiological study in health policy remains elusive. The paradigm shift from major world powers leading global affairs and affecting global health to multiple state and non-state actors vying for power and influence regionally has possibly led to an increase in small scale and low intensity conflict with high morbidity and mortality, including both noncommunicable (NCD) and communicable diseases. The basic research carried out for this PhD project includes: 1) mental health surveys and trauma associated with war; 2) the migration of, and the need for, advanced medical personnel and their services in war and hybrid warfare, including how the negative movement or adverse flow through 'brain drain' of doctors affects disaster; 3) a quantitative study of infectious diseases, health and human security associated with state stability and the mitigation of state failure; 4) a qualitative food security review, the origins of food security and its impact; and 5) the general concepts of...
Ethics of doctor-patient relationship in dentistry
Pipková, Irena ; Bednář, Miloslav (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Šimek, Jiří (referee)
The work involves comparingethical values in the general population without serious damage to the general health, and in pacients within overal disease where i tis clear that the scale of values of the two groups are different. From futher examinations came some additional insights /see Chapter 4 d/ and chapter 5 work/. Results and conclusions are in line with Anglo-Saxon literature/ European and overseas/ and our own experience with treating pacients. No medical industry can not fully ensure full health of pacients. There is a set of values focused on specific medical professions and their own core values. These parameters set values based on many aspects of professional decision meking. And those serve to assess the pacientś needs. How to treat and the doctorś own medical approach to the pacient with severe overal ilness correspondens to the hierarchy of ethical values in Ozar-Sokol scheme. Proposal of six major ethical values concerning dentistry and access to treatment and justice in distribution and alocation of resources in surgical pacients with variety of serious medical interventions: heart surgery, transplants, etc./ ethical values contribute to the proces of decision- making in case of conflict. Not all Ozar-Sokol scheme recognizes those. From the perspective of pacients with serious...
Kinetics of selected substances in dermal exposure (Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons)
Kotingová, Lenka ; Fiala, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Čegan, Alexander (referee)
Kinetics of selected substances in dermal exposure (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) Skin is one of the largest human body organs and its proper functioning is vital for human body. Dermal exposure represents one of the most important pathways of exogenous substances into the body. Data on kinetics of transdermal absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have been yet so far insufficient. Present estimates of health risks level connected to dermal exposure to PAHs, are loaded with great deal of uncertainty. The aim of the dissertation thesis was employment and validation of appropriate testing method of transdermal absorption of substances in vitro and the use of this method to obtain new findings on the influence of concentration, dissolvent and form of application, on the measure of dermal absorption of selected PAH representatives. For the testing of transdermal absorption of substances in vitro, the method using static Franz vertical diffusion cell was chosen. As an absorption membrane, full leather of rear surface of the auricle of a domestic pig was used. Content of analytes in samples of receptor fluid was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC), for which a new methods was developed and...
Prevention of hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users - hepatitis C virus infection treatment rate among injecting drug users, treatment efficacy and related factors on the side of treatment system
Mravčík, Viktor ; Bencko, Vladimír (advisor) ; Němeček, Vratislav (referee) ; Husa, Petr (referee)
Background: Injecting drug users (IDUs) represent considerable group of patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV treatment is an effective tool for reduction of HCV transmissions among IDUs. Nevertheless treatment rate among IDUs is rather insufficient. Treatment uptake, provision and adherence as well as its efficacy in IDUs are determined by number of specific factors. Aims: Mapping an extent of the provision of HCV treatment to IDUs in the Czech Republic, rules and practices for the admission of IDUs into HCV treatment and its provision, describing relevant factors related to drug use. Material and methods: From January to March 2011, a questionnaire survey among centres for treatment of viral hepatitis in the Czech Republic was conducted. 76 identified centres were addressed, of which 45 (59%) responded, and 40 (53%) filled in an online questionnaire. Results: Estimated number of centres treated HCV with combination of pegylated interferon α and ribavirin in the Czech Republic in 2010 was 61, 39 of them treated IDUs. Estimated 780 persons were treated, of whom 370 were (mostly ex-) IDUs. Reported treatment uptake in IDUs was 60% on average (range 0-90%). Treatment is completed by 80% of IDUs on average (0-100%) according to clinicians. Most clinicians reported no difference in the treatment...
The biomonitoring of the selected biomarkers in the Czech population within the scope of the joined projects COPHES and DEMOCOPHES
Grafnetterová, Anna ; Černá, Milena (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee)
Human biomonitoring represents today an important tool for the monitoring of the human beings exposition to the environmental pollutants. COPHES and DEMOICOPHES projects are address to harmonized approach to human biomonitoring within Europe. This process enables receiving comparable data on the international level. Four biomarkers (mercury, cadmium, kotinin and phthalate metabolites) were selected for this pilot study; all of them are extensively monitored at present. 27 European states at all participated in these projects and procedures were tested in 16 countries of the European Union and the Switzerland. Two localities different in the population density - Prague and Liberec were selected for the Czech Republic. Children of age 6 - 11 and their mothers were selected as the sensitive population groups. Samples of biological material (hair and urine) were taken from the representative individuals. 120 pairs of mother - child were involved in the study. Information about participant's alimentation and life style, inhabitation, education, and smoking habits was gained in questioners. Obtained information was joined with results of analyses of biological material and was evaluated statistically. It was found from results that recorded levels of monitored biomarkers do not exceed substantial healthy limits...
Vztah mezi genetickými polymorfismy DNA reparačních genů a jejich expresí u zdravé populace (s výhledem na stanovení u onkologických pacientů).
Hánová, Monika ; Vodička, Pavel (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Černá, Marie (referee)
DNA damage response is a complex system responsible for protection of a cell against internal and external DNA damaging agents and in maintaining genome integrity. Many of genes participating in DNA damage response pathways are polymorphic. Genetic polymorphisms in coding and regulatory regions may have impact on the function of proteins encoded by the genes. Phenotypic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is subject of investigation in connection with the ability of a cell to manage genotoxic stress and subsequently, in relation to cancer susceptibility. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the association between SNPs in DNA repair genes (hOGG1, XRCC1, XPC) and cell cycle genes (TP53, p21CDKN1A , BCL2 and BAX) and their mRNA expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes from individuals occupationally exposed to styrene and control individuals. The aim was extended to analyses of relationships between mRNA expression levels of the above-mentioned genes and markers of exposure to styrene (concentration of styrene in blood and in air), markers of DNA damage (single strand breaks - SSBs, and endonuclease III specific sites - Endo III sites) and the base excision repair (BER) capacity, by means of γ-irradiation specific DNA repair rates and oxidative repair. Study on the group of healthy...
Significance of C-reactive protein determination in clinical preactice
Suchý, Matěj ; Moravík, Ján (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee)
My dissertation deals with the significance of C-reactive protein determination in clinical practices. It is divided into three parts. Theorethical part acquaints us with CRP, statistics and statistical methods. Experimental part informs us about the applied machine, data gathering and outcomes valuation procedures.There are results of statistical data processing in the final part of my thesis. CRP was measured with Qucread 101 machine (Oriondignostika) in all cases and biological samples to distinguish between different kinds of infection were collected from all examined patients. I set down all the examination results and patients symptoms into a tab and made statistical data evaluation. The purpose of my work was to find out if CRP level incresed above 50mg/l isdefinitely confirmed by biological samples examination. If we can find possitive cultivation when CRP is lower than 8mg/l and finally to discover the correlation between all investigated atributes. Aftet answering these qeustions we should be able to find out significance of CRP measuring in diagnosis assessment.

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