National Repository of Grey Literature 11 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Quality of Life in Patients with Head and Neck Tumors
Doležalová, Helena ; Šimůnek, Antonín (advisor) ; Kubecová, Martina (referee) ; Pála, Miloslav (referee)
2. Summary Quality of life in patients with head and neck tumors The prevalence of head and neck tumours constantly increasing in the last decades represents the serious medical and social problem. The retrospective assessment of the quality deals with the quality of life in patients with early stages of oral cavity tumours after the high dose rate brachytherapy treatment (HDR BRT). The quality of life has been evaluated in 14 patients treated at the Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Hradec Kralove for early onset of oral cavity tumour using the high dose rate brachytherapy treatment. The standardized EORTC QLQ- C30 and EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires have been used in this study. The evaluation of the questionnaires was performed 12 months after the treatment. General health status using the EORTC QLQ-C30 was scored with 70 points. The most severe reported symptoms were fatigue, insomnia, loss of appetite, dyspnoea and financial problems. The main problems being identified by EORTC QLQ-H&N35 were weight gain, cough, pain, sticky saliva and social eating. On the contrary weight loss, speech impairments, difficulties in mouth opening, swallowing and sensory problems were not considered as significant ones. The quality of life in individuals treated with the high dose rate...
Late Toxicity of Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer - Clinical Aspects
Vlková, Jana ; Odrážka, Karel (advisor) ; Kubecová, Martina (referee) ; Šlampa, Pavel (referee)
Late Toxicity of Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer - Clinical Aspects. (Influence of Hormonal Therapy on Chronic Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Prostate Cancer Patients Treated with Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy) Besides dose escalation, hormonal therapy is the second factor that can prolong survival in men with localized prostate cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate if hormonal ablation influence the incidence of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in men treated with radiotherapy. Materials and methods: We evaluated data of chronic toxicity in 320 men irradiated by 3D-CRT technique with a dose of 70 or 74 Gy and 233 men irradiated by IMRT with a dose of 78 or 82 Gy. Toxicity was scored using RTOG and FC-LENT criteria. Results: There was no difference in chronic GI or GU toxicity if we evaluated all the patients together. Also no significant difference was observed in the 3D-CRT group, we have only noticed a tendency to higher incidence of GI and lower incidence of GU toxicity in men with hormonal therapy. In the IMRT group, there was no difference in GI toxicity, but GU toxicity G3-4 was significantly higher in men with hormonal therapy (p = 0.045). If we evaluated separately neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal treatment, there were lower GU toxicity in...
The prognostic significance of change of the epidermal growth factor receptor expression in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma treated with neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy
Richter, Igor ; Dvořák, Josef (advisor) ; Kubecová, Martina (referee) ; Matula, Pavol (referee)
Aim of the study: The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prognostic impact of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression changes during neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Material and methods:50 patients with with locally advanced rectal cancer were evaluated. All the patients were administered the total dose of 44 Gy. Capecitabine has been concomitantly administered in the dose 825 mg/m2 in two daily oral administrations. Surgery was indicated 4-8 weeks from the chemoradiotherapy completion. EGFR expression in the pretreatment biopsies and in the resected specimens was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Results:All of 50 patients received radiotherapy without interruption up to the total planned dose. In 30 patients sphincter-saving surgery was performed, 20 patients underwent amputation of the rectum. Downstaging was described in 30 patients. 4 patients have had complete pathologic remission. 26 patients have had partial remission, the disease was stable in 15 patients. Progression was reported in 5 patients. The median disease-free survival was 64.9 months, median overall survival was 76.4 months. Increased EGFR expression was found in 12 patients (26,1 %). A statistically significantly shorter overall survival (p < 0.0001) and...
ATM and TGFB1 polymorphism in prediction of late complications of chemoreadiotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer
Paulíková, Simona ; Petera, Jiří (advisor) ; Kubecová, Martina (referee) ; Fínek, Jindřich (referee)
Cervical cancer is due to high incidence the third most commonly diagnosed gynecological cancer in the Czech republic. More than 50% of these tumors are diagnosed in advanced stage (st. IIB and higher) and therapy is more difficult than in lower stage tumors. The standard treatement method for locally advanced cervical cancers is combined oncological therapy including external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy and concomitant chemotherapy. This treatement provides good tumor control, but there is also a risk of late complications in irradiated area. Severe late complications affect 10-15% of patients. It is still not possible to predict late complications and therefore detection of valid predictive factors for high tissue radiosensitivity could help to identify patients with increased risk before therapy. Knowledge of such predictive factors would also help to individualize the treatement. New molecular biological methods brought new findings about cancerogenesis, cell cycle regulation and cellular reaction to the radiation damage. It was hypothized, that mutation of genes involved in DNA damage reparation or cell proliferation are one of causes of high tissue radiosensitivity. The aim of our study was to evaluate relations between ATM and TGFß1 polymorphisms and late tissue toxicity in patients treated for...
Risk factors for atherosclerosis in patients with Breast cancer
Kalábová, Hana ; Melichar, Bohuslav (advisor) ; Kubecová, Martina (referee) ; Tesařová, Petra (referee)
2. Summary Atherosclerosis and cancer are two of the most frequent causes of death in the developed world (Ng et al. 2006). There are a lot of similar risk factors both for atherosclerosis and for cancer (for example age, smoking, high intake of lipids, minimal physical activity leading to obesity and others). Atherosclerosis and cancer activate the immune system (Wachter et al. 1989) and the investigation of ischemic syndrome (often caused by atherosclerosis) contributed to finding some common molecular trails in the development of both of these diseases in last years (Pehrsson et al. 2005). Thanks to the progress in oncology treatment, patients with cancer survive longer, however, it is also very probable that a complex cancer therapy can lead to complications of atherosclerosis. The goal of this study was to clarify the influence of breast cancer itself and oncology treatment on atherosclerosis and its complications.
Use of experimental animal models in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, possibilities for prevention and treatment
Hrzán, Lukáš ; Kubecová, Martina (advisor)
The topic of this diploma thesis is chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. The first part is concerned with etiology, symptoms and diagnostics of peripheral neuropathy. The second part consists of a description of the most common antineoplastic drugs causing peripheral neuropathy. Different in vivo and in vitro models that are used in laboratory research to demonstrate the occurence of peripheral neuropathy are discussed. In the practical part, an experiment is described that was designed to evaluate whether the strain of CD1 mice can be a useful animal model to study chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. Results of this experiment indicate that after 6 weeks of administration of cisplatin, paclitaxel and bortezomib, evidence of damage to the peripheral nervous system can be detected using neurobehavioral and neurophysiological tests. The final section includes information about current research in prevention and management of chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy. Latest recommendations for prevention and therapy of peripheral neuropathy in oncological patients are given.
Significance of adjuvant radiotherapy in malignant mesenchymal tumors of the uterus
Němčíková, Petra ; Kubecová, Martina (advisor)
Malignant mesenchymal tumors of the uterus occur in 2-5%, but the incidence varies from 1-3/100 000 women. Characteristic of uterine sarcomas are aggressive growth and early metastasis blood and lymphatic route, low-grade leiomysarkom (LMS), endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and adenosarkom may be long intervals when a woman does not have any problems. Most commonly occurring sarcoma is carcinosarcoma, which represents 47-60% of cases. It occurs mainly in postmenopausal women. Clinically, abnormal uterine bleeding, abdominal pain, stinking discharge. Carcinosarcoma rapidly metastasizing, at the time of primary surgery is now often extended beyond the uterus and has the worst prognosis. Five-year survival is between 2-9%. Another is in the order Leiomyosarcoma (LMS), which occurs in about 30-38% of cases. Usually arises de novo and is solitary, rarely arises transform in benign myoma. His prognosis is better. In a classic example of clinical manifestation of the states rapidly growing fibroid. However, it was shown that only 1% of hysterectomies, as indicated by the rapidly growing fibroid is histologically proven LMS and only 2.6%. LMS is diagnosed on the basis of hysterectomy, indicated for suspected (fast growing) myoma. Endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) are approximately 10-25% of cases and is usually...
Results of Combination Treatment in Patiens with Rectal Cancer
Kořínek, Petr ; Kubecová, Martina (advisor)
Colorectal cancer is a problem of all civilized countries. Czech Unfortunately, Africa is in the incidence of these tumors for morethan ten years on the first areas of statistics, of all oncological diseases in our country is 13 to 14%. (1) Every year there are more than 7000 new cases andmore than 6000 patients in the tumor dies. It is the most common malignanttumor gastrointestinal tract. It is the second most common cancer in mennow after prostate cancer and in women after breast cancer. (2)Mortality from colorectal cancer growing slower than its incidence. This positive trend is likely caused by the start of screening programs. Internationalclassification divides these according to anatomical localization of tumors in colon carcinoma(C18), together they states tumors rektosigmoideálního connection (C19) and its ownseparate tumors rectum (C20).

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