National Repository of Grey Literature 5 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
In-situ compression test of artificial bone foams in controlled environment using X-Ray micro-computed tomography
Glinz, J. ; Kytýř, Daniel ; Fíla, Tomáš ; Šleichrt, Jan ; Schrempf, A. ; Fürst, D. ; Kastner, J. ; Senck, S.
X-RayMicro-computed tomography (XCT) has already become a standard method for investigations of bone and bone replacement materials in medical research. For an in-depth characterization of histomorphometric features, digital volume data acquired by XCT can be processed and visualized three dimensionally to determine parameters such as bone volume fraction, cortical thickness and porosity. In this study, we investigated specimens of artificial bone foams, developed by the research group for surgical simulators at the UAS Linz, which are used to mimic the haptic feedback of physiologic and pathologic bone for more realistic surgery training. Similar specimen of artificial bone foam in a dry state have already been characterized precisely in [1]. However, since physiological bone typically is in a wet state, the main purpose of this study was the investigation of the influence of environmental conditions on artificial bone foams of varying composition. Thus, specimens with two kinds of mineral filler material as well as different amounts of foaming agent were prepared and tested in an in-situ loading stage developed by the ITAM CAS. In this stage, specimens can be immersed in liquid and tested under temperature-controlled conditions. Consequently, a total amount of 12 specimens was subjected to compression loading; half of them immersed in water at 36.5◦C and half in dry condition. Results showed that there is no significant influence of liquid immersion to the compression outcome. However, foams with less amount of foaming agent appeared to have smaller pores resulting in higher compression strength. Different types of mineral filler material also showed no significant influence on compression strength. Furthermore, a time-lapse in-situ investigation with XCT scans in-between the load steps was performed for one specimen immersed in water to investigate behavior during load. Despite of the open porous morphology of the foam, water immersed only partially into the foam, leaving pores closer to the center unfilled. Concluding, the usage of the artificial bone foams investigated is despite their physiologically wet condition also valid in a dry state since environmental differences are nonessential for their mechanical properties.
Instrumentation of four-point bending test during 4D computed tomography
Kytýř, Daniel ; Fíla, Tomáš ; Koudelka_ml., Petr ; Kumpová, Ivana ; Vopálenský, Michal ; Vavro, Leona ; Vavro, Martin
High-resolution time-lapse micro-focus X-ray computed tomography is an effective method for investigation of deformation processes on volumetric basis including fracture propagation characteristics of non-homogeneous materials subjected to mechanical loading. This experimental method requires implementation of specifically designed loading devices to X-ray imaging setups. In case of bending tests, our background research showed that no commercial solution allowing for reliable investigation of so called fracture process zone in quasi-brittle materials is currently available. Thus, this paper is focused on description of recently developed in-situ four-point bending loading device and its instrumentation for testing of quasi-brittle materials. Proof of concept together with the pilot experiments were successfully performed in a CT scanner TORATOM. Based on results of the pilot experiments, we demonstrate that crack development and propagation in a quasi-brittle material can be successfully observed in 3D using high resolution 4D micro-CT under loading.
Basic biomechanical characterization of polyurethane based artificial cancellous structures
Šleichrt, Jan ; Kytýř, Daniel ; Pithartová, Kateřina ; Senck, S. ; Fürst, D. ; Schrempf, A.
The main goal of this study is to validate elementary mechanical parameters of a newly designed open-cell foam. The purpouse for investigating artificial material is to approach the properties of the human bone in the case of its adequate replacement. Investigated material can be also used as an artificial bone to train surgical procedures and to improve the skills of the surgeons. Four sets of the foam with different chemical composition were subjected to an uniaxial quasi-static loading to describe basic mechanical behaviour of these samples. Based on these experiments, the stress-strain diagrams were created as a comparative tool including calculation of the effective Young’s modulus. The acquired knowledges will be used as input parameters of a follow-up study aimed at describing the morphology of presented structures and their response to mechanical experiments. A distortion effect of porosity on the results is not considered in this study.
Three-dimensional characterization of polymer foams using X-ray dark-field imaging
Senck, S. ; Plank, B. ; Gusenbauer, C. ; Salaberger, D. ; Vavřík, Daniel ; Santer, W. ; Kastner, J.
Due to the low cost, the ease of processing, and excellent material properties, polymer foams are used in various applications, e.g. packaging, building and construction, furnitures and bedding, and the automotive and aerospace sector. The mechanical response of polymer foams is primarily influenced by density and morphology. While foam density can be determined with high precision, cell morphology is more difficult to determine since the size distribution of foam cells differs in three dimensions. However, using conventional methods, e.g. optical light microscopy or scanning electron microscopy, it is very difficult to obtain three-dimensional information and to differentiate between the strut system and cell walls. An alternative for the three-dimensional characterization of foam morphology is micro-computed tomography (XCT). But even non-destructive techniques like XCT are not able to characterize anisotropic foams if the thickness of single struts and cell walls is below the physcial resolution of the respective XCT system. In this contribution we therefore investigate different polymeric foam samples using a Talbot-Lau grating interferometer XCT (TLGI-XCT) system. We show that the obtained darkfield contrast images show a high contrast and a strong signal at struts and cell walls, facilitating the segmentation of foam cells in various examples.
Deformation behaviour of gellan gum based artificial bone structures under simulated physiological conditions
Krčmářová, N. ; Šleichrt, J. ; Fíla, Tomáš ; Koudelka_ml., Petr ; Kytýř, Daniel
The paper deals with investigation of deformation behaviour of gellan gum (GG) based\nstructures prepared for regenerative medicine purposes. Investigated material was synthesized as porous spongy-like scaffold reinforced by bioactive glass (BAG) nano-particles in different concentrations. Deformation behavior was obtained employing custom designed experimental setup. This device equipped with bioreactor chamber allows to test the delivered samples under simulated physiological conditions with controlled flow and temperature. Cylindrical samples were subjected to uniaxial quasi-static loading in tension and compression. Material properties of plain scaffold buffered by 50 wt% and 70 wt% BAG were derived from a set of tensile and compression tests. The results are represented in form of stress-strain curves calculated from the acquired force and displacement data.

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