National Repository of Grey Literature 20 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases
Hrdinová, Zuzana ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Tůmová, Eva (referee)
Preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is one of the main components of preventive medicine. This thesis deals with prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The theoretical part describes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is at the background of 90 % of CVD. The next chapters deal with the most common cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There is described determination of cardiovascular risk and a nutritional prevention is included at the end of the theoretical part. A part of this work is a research carried out on 107 randomly selected individuals. The main objective was to find out the level of knowledge of this individuals about the possibilities of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The survey was performed in a questionnaire survey, both in electronic and printed form. The survey revealed that the majority of respondents (87,9 %) correctly associate the CVD with an inappropriate lifestyle, only 12,1 % of respondents considered the most important factor in genetics. The negative influence of inappropriate meals and lack of physical activity prevails in the respondents' awareness. Most respondents also correctly stated that CVD accounts for almost 50 % of all deaths in the Czech Republic. An active interest in lifestyle, which is an integral part of preventive measures,...
The effect of high protein enteral nutrition on the nutritional status of the patients in intesive care
Jirků, Jitka ; Křížová, Jarmila (advisor) ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (referee)
Background: The paper presents a broad view of the issue of providing sufficient nutritional support (enteral nutrition) with a high level of protein for the target group of patients in intensive care. Patients in these types of departments (ARO, ICU) have different metabolic requirements at different time intervals of their acute illness. Understanding the essence of metabolism of essential macronutrients with all the consequences on the organism is the basis for understanding metabolism in intensive care with a significant influence on the different nutritional requirements of these patients and maximizing our efforts to adapt the type of enteral nutrition to the needs of intensive care patients. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the new enteral formula Peptamen Intense on the nutritional status of patients in intensive care. Assess the possibility of achieving the nutritional target of proteins (energy) according to the guidelines. Evaluate other parameters that influence management of nutritional support in patients with intensive care. Methodology: Ten patients were selected from the workplaces (ARO, JIP) throughout the Czech Republic according to clearly defined input criteria between November 2017 and March 2018. Subsequently, all patients were enrolled in the...
Regulation of triglyceride metabolism in circulation in postprandial phase.
Zemánková, Kateřina ; Kovář, Jan (advisor) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee) ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (referee)
Increased triglyceride (TG) concentration has been generally accepted as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and, therefore, lowering TG is therapeutic target that should reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Traditionally, concentration of TG is measured in the fasting state (8-12 hours after an overnight fasting) mainly because the rise in TG levels after meal leads to the high variation in TG values. However, human beings spend larger portion of the day in a postprandial state and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia may then play a substantial role in determination of cardiovascular disease risk. The increased and prolonged postprandial lipemia has been found in patients with coronary heart disease. Moreover, recent data from Copenhagen Heart Study point out that the non-fasting TG concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk more tightly than the fasting TG concentration. Importantly, concentration of non-fasting TG is substantially affected by individual behavioural habits such as diet composition and physical activity. It remains to be determined whether it would be appropriate to identify individuals at higher risk of cardiovascular disease due to increased postprandial TG using tolerance test analogous to glucose tolerance test. The protocol of standardized fat tolerance...
Nutrition in children with chronic skin disease
Tomíšková, Markéta ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Matoulek, Martin (referee)
1 Children and chronically ill are two groups of people with specific dietary requirements. Therefore, if the patient falls into both groups at the same time, it can be very difficult to determine a suitable nutritional plan for him/her and to determine the recommended diet. The aim of this thesis is to describe basic specifics and requirements for nutritional care for chronically ill children with skin diseases. In particular, this thesis focuses on the nutrition of children with atopic eczema. In the practical part of the thesis it was investigated how key findings of current research and recommendations of the Czech Paediatric Society are followed in practice and how the education of the patients related to atopic eczema is ensured. The conclusions of research and recommendations of the Czech Paediatric Society on exclusive breastfeeding lasting at least until the end of the 4th month have been respected in the majority of cases (85 %). Recommendations on the introduction of solid food around 6 months of age were also largely observed in the sample of patients studied - solid food was introduced later than in 6 months later in 23% of patients. Recommendations regarding elimination of food limited to proven allergens was mostly not respected. In 86% of patients 3-6 foods were eliminated. In 62% of...
Nutrition and health claims on food packaging
Laštovičková, Jitka ; Pejšová, Hana (advisor) ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (referee)
Food producers must provide food packaging with a mandatory nutrition label in conformity with the contemporary food legislation of the Europian Union. There have been several changes of the legislation in last 10 years. Moreover new rules for providing the health and nutrition claims on food packaging have been issued. Main objectives were to unite legislation valid in the European Union and also to protect the rights of customers. This diploma thesis focuses on nutrition and health claims on food packaging. The aim of the thesis is to summarize changes and current state of legislation on nutrition and health claims on food packaging and also to explore patients' awareness of nutrition and health claims. To analyse the theme of the research the quantitative method was used in a form of a questionnaire given to the patients, who are visiting a dietician. There were 83 patients, who participated in research, 80 questionnaires were analysed (3 questionnaires were not filled in properly, therefore they were not included). Most of the respondents think, that information in nutrition labels on food packaging are true and trustworthy. Respondents also read a nutrition label of food, when buying it for the first time. Most of the respondents have sought the information about health and nutrition claims on...
Nutrition and sedentary jobs
Řehounková, Alena ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Pejšová, Hana (referee)
In my bachelor thesis I'm looking little bit closer to one of the key problems of our ages, which in my opinion is the fact, that too many people spending their working days only by sitting a whole day in front of the computer.At the same time, they have almost unlimited access to food. Both factors together might have significant affect to an unhealthy life style, which has a big influence to metabolic deseases develompment, so called "Lifestyle deseases". In the first part of the thesis, I am describing nutrition itself. How the nutrition intake should look like. Data I used is focused on proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins or mineral substances intake. In the second part, the major metabolic deseases are described, especially those associated to a wrong lifestyle behaviours and sedentary lifstyle. The practical part of the thesis is based on a questionnaire survey. The main objective of this survey is to determine dietary and exercise habits of those employees, who spend the most of their working days sitting behind the office desk. The research shows, that majority of respondents care about a food they consume. The most of them trying to adjust their behaviour and shopping habits. Some of the respondents are not able to reach their goal, even though they're interested to change. Possible...
Nutritional status in patients suffering from deep sternal wound infection
Štroblová, Petra ; Špaček, Miroslav (advisor) ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (referee)
Introduction: The procedure of longitudinal median sternotomy is the most commonly used approach in cardiac surgery with the necessary complex postoperative treatment. A multifactorial approach is particularly important to prevent later complications, which can be very serious or fatal. The theoretical part of the thesis is not just about the risk factors that may interfere with the healing process but also about nutritional measures that could reduce the risk or completely prevent the profound dehiscence of the sternotomic wound. Methodology: The research method consisted of a retrospective analysis of the risk factors of deep sternal dehiscence in 22 patients who underwent cardiac surgery using the technique of longitudinal median sternotomy over a ten-year interval. 11 patients with sternal healing disorder were selected and included in group 1. Subsequently, an additional 11 patients were selected without sternal dehiscence. These patients were selected in such a way that their characteristics corresponded to the characteristics of patients of the first group in terms of statistical evaluation and comparison of both groups (type of exercise, length of operation, use of extracorporeal circulation, LIMA / BIMA, etc.). In the selection of patients in the control group 2, the laboratory nutrition...
Education effect on blood lipid levels in patients with dyslipidaemia
Kuncířová, Veronika ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Tůmová, Eva (referee)
The bachelor thesis examines the influence of education and diet on patients with dyslipidemia. Another object was to explore the eating habits of patients and find out if they are interested in a healthy lifestyle. The theoretical part is based on knowledge from the academic literature. It explains the concept of dyslipidemia, its divisions and causes of disease and describes possible methods of treatment. The pieces of information for the practical part are obtained through questionnaires from patients who are treated in the Center for Preventive Cardiology, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague. Another source are laboratory tests of blood, which were taken before education and then again after a minimum interval of one month from the education. Values were processed by using graphs and tables. The results clearly showed us that after education and compliance with the recommended diet, values of blood lipids were improved. On three of the four monitored lipid parameters diet had a positive impact. Furthermore, it appears that the majority of patients with dyslipidemia has good eating habits. The last point that has been studied, was the patients' interest in a healthy lifestyle. It revealed insufficinet interest at the majority of the...

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