National Repository of Grey Literature 73 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Ecotoxicological assessment of biochar from sewage sludge
Kotzurová, Iveta ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The aim of this diploma thesis is to assess the ecotoxicological effect of biochar produced from sewage sludge. In case of application of biochar to agricultural land, both the soil and aquatic ecosystem may be affected therefore contact and aquatic tests were chosen to assess the ecotoxicological effects. Representatives of soil invertebrates were earthworms Eisenia fetida; Daphnia magna and Artemia salina were chosen from aquatic animals and terrestrial plants were represented by Lactuca sativa, Sinapis alba and Allium cepa. The results of contact tests point out how ecosystem could be negatively affected by biochar dose. Through aqueous extract were shown differences in sensitivity of individual organisms in aquatic tests. Dried sewage sludge was found to be the biggest burden for all tested organisms. The pelletized biochar with the addition of an additive showed the lowest negative effect on tested organisms.
Assessment of the effectiveness of advanced oxidation processes via ecotoxicity tests
Procházková, Petra ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
Recently, an increasing problem in wastewater treatment is the insufficient removal of organic pollutants. These substances can be toxic to the environment already in a small amount, either acutely or chronically. The goal is therefore to develop of technologies that ensure their effective removal. One possibility is to use advanced oxidation processes. Advanced oxidation processes work on the principle of non-selective oxidation mediated by OH radicals. Several methods such as O3/H2O2 (Peroxone), UV/H2O2 or Fenton´s reaction can be used to generate them. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effectiveness of the used advanced oxidation processes in wastewater treatment via ekotoxicity tests. Wastewater samples treated with advanced oxidation processes on the pilot unit showed low values of acute toxicity for selected test organisms (D. magna, T. platyurus, S. alba, L. minor). For the sample of waste water that was treated with the UV/H2O2 on AOP laboratory unit, there was an increase in acute toxicity on the testing organism D. magna and L. minor. The similar effect was observer in the tests with the D. magna with the model samples treated with the same method, while the tests on the L. minor showed a reduction in toxicity.
Determination of substances content in mint
Novotná, Martina ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This Bachelor thesis deals with determination of the content substances in mint (Mentha). Mint is in pharmacy very popular herb, it is been used for over 2000 years. We know many species of mint. Peppermint (Mentha piperita) is the most favorite and most common species. In the theoretical part there is description of substances found in plants, the characteristic of mint and principles of used analytical methods. Practical part of this thesis describes substances found in examined teas.
Study of chemical processes initiated by electrical discharge in liquids
Možíšová, Aneta ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Kozáková, Zdenka (advisor)
This Bachelor´s thesis in the first part describes the process of ignition of the plasma discharge in water solutions, the generation of the particles that are generated during the discharge and their subsequent analysis by appropriate analytical methods. The second part focuses on specific cases of the use of the plasma discharge in the environment of selected electrolyte, phosphates were selected for individual experiments and for the comparison of sodium chloride. Phosphates were chosen mainly because of their stable pH as a possible benefit in discharge. The aim is to obtain the most ideal environment for the ignition of the plasma discharge and to optimize the method, which could subsequently be used for medical purposes, especially when sterilizing tools
Plastics and microplastics and their influence on biota of ecosystems
Románeková, Ivana ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with the influence of plastics and microplastics on the environment. The aims of this thesis is to work out a literature review focused on plastics with emphasis on microplastics and on their negative influence on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem and organisms that are living there. Then on the basis of acquired knowledge, propose a battery of ecotoxicological tests.
Options determination of synthetic fragrances in wastewater
Kašparová, Jarmila ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
Synthetic fragrances (musk) are artificially made organic compounds, which are used as fragrances in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The presence of musk is proven in all environmental compartments. However, the greatest attention is paid to purified waste water, which is a frequent source of pollution of surface water. The physico-chemical properties of musk compounds cause their accumulation in the living and non-living components of the ecosystem, where they behave as persistent pollutants. The presented bachelor thesis deals with the problem of determining individual musk compounds of all groups side by side. In the bachelor thesis, nineteen musk compounds of four groups, nitromusk compounds, macrocyclic musk compounds, linear musk compounds, polycyclic musk compounds were studied. The basis of this work was to optimize the method for determining all groups of musk compounds side by side, evaluating and interpreting the results. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used as a method for extracting analytes. Gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry was used for the final analysis, as a detector was used for a Time of flight analyzer.
Ecotoxicity of Firefighting foam
Belisová, Mária ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with ecotoxicity of selected fire extinguishing agents concentrated on surface-active agents (surfactants) contained in foam fire extinguishers. Tested substances were solid humectants TS TURBO and TS ECO. In this bachelor thesis the ecotoxicological effects were assessed through aquatic ecotoxicity tests with an aquatic plant Lemna minor and a crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. They are fresh-water organisms on which the water contamination can be quickly and quite easily assessed. Also these fire extinguishers were tested for acute ecotoxicity of soil organisms by ecotoxicological contact tests with Eisenia fetida and seeds of Lactuca sativa. Finally, the biodegradation of both fire extinguishing agents was tested, observing the change between 24 hour exposition and one month exposition of tested agents. The change of toxicity was tested with Thamnocephalus platyurus. Based on experimental results of extinguishing agents the value of LC50 and IC50 was calculated and the ecotoxicity was compared.
Ecotoxicity of cholesterol-lowering-drugs
Königsmarková, Kristýna ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
This bachelor thesis is focused on the ecotoxicological testing of blood cholesterol lowering drugs. At first it considers the issue from a theoretical point of view – describes the effect of residual drugs on the environment, the distribution of hypolipidemics, the risks of elevated cholesterol, then deals with ecotoxicology and introduces the principles of ecotoxicological testing. In the experimental part, these following drugs were tested: Corsim, Atoris, Lipanthyl Supra, Lipanthyl 267M. In addition, clofibric acid – the metabolite of fibrates was tested. Residues of these drugs are found mainly in the aquatic ecosystem, that is why tests of aquatic organisms have been used to evaluate ecotoxicity. Test organisms were Thamnocephalus platyurus, Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri. LC50, EC50 and IC50 values were determined on the basis of test results. Using these values, the ecotoxicity of the above mentioned hypolipidemics was evaluated.
Assessment of the drinking water treatment plant effectiveness via ecotoxicological tests and screening analyses
Linartová, Barbora ; Mravcová, Ludmila (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
The quality of raw water is deteriorating with the continuous increase in environmental pollution. Raw water is being modified to drinking water by technological processes, and it is therefore necessary to put increased demands on the efficiency of these technological processes and their possible innovation. Due to the fact that raw water is contaminated with different types of pollutants, it is necessary to continuously control the drinking water supplied to the public distribution network in order to ensure its quality. Drinking water treatment is still unable to treat the raw water perfectly, its pollution is only reduced to acceptable standards. For this reason, it is indispensable that the quality of drinking water is being checked regularly and at the same time the efficiency of individual technological processes of drinking water treatment is assessed. This includes screening analysis or eventually ecotoxicological tests. The thesis focuses on the efficiency of technological processes of drinking water treatment. Within the experimental part, samples of raw water and samples of water after each separation stage have been collected at the drinking water treatment plant in the Czech Republic. These samples have been subjected to ecotoxicological tests and screening analysis. Based on the ecotoxicological tests carried out on Thamnocephalus platyurus, Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri, we can assume the emergence of harmful chlorinated by-products, resulting to nearly 100% mortality in T. platyurus. The results of the screening analysis carried out indicate, after the extraction of specimens by the SPE method using HPLC/MS, that the most effective method for the removal of hormonal substances is ozonization.
Ecotoxicological assessment of former mineral oil refinery
Kociánová, Sabina ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (advisor)
Brownfields are one of the unfavorable parts of industrial heritage that developed from 18th to 20th century. Brownfields are very different and in most cases they have negative impact on the environment. Crucial for this thesis were brownfields with certain level of contaminations. The site of a former refinery of mineral oils OSTRAMO, which represents ecological burden, is a brownfield that can threaten the environment in all its compartments. This was the reason why OSTRAMO was selected for this thesis. The goal of this thesis was to evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of contaminated samples taken from the location via ecotoxicity testing in aquatic and contact arrangement. The result of each test confirmed expected negative impact of the samples from the location of former rafinery on testing organisms.

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