National Repository of Grey Literature 19 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Emerging cardiovascular risk markers in diagnostics and therapy
Tůmová, Eva ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Freiberger, Tomáš (referee) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries with an enormous influence on individual health and significant socioeconomic impact as well. The aim of most physicians in recent decades is to seek the best possible predicative risk factor (RF) (or combination of several RF) which could help to determine the individual risk of developing CVD. This risk stratification can be used to identify the high risk patients and treatment intensification or establishment of early preventive measures. Currently, several RF of atherosclerosis and CVD are commonly used to individualize health care. However, individuals with low levels of these RF suffer of CVD, therefore the effort to find as much as possible specific RF still persists. In recent years, the inflammatory markers, crucial in the atherosclerosis development, raise great expectation In our studies, we focused on investigating the levels of inflammatory parameters in specific groups of patients (obese children and patients with metabolic syndrome) and observed the effect of weight loss following lifestyle changes. Our main concern was lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), oxidized LDL particles (ox-LDL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results demonstrated significantly...
Assessment of knowledge about appropriate setup of nutrition in patients with cardiovascular disease risk factors
Lupoměská, Petra ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Altschmiedová, Tereza (referee)
This diploma thesis consists of two parts - the theoretical and the practical one. The theoretical part is divided into several chapters; the first three are focused on the main information about atherosclerosis such as its definition, predilection areas, process of atherosclerotic changes, the most important risk factors and its clinical consequences. The following chapter introduces the essential measures used in cardiovascular disease prevention. The last chapter deals with education and also describes education for cardiovascular disease prevention. The practical part is dedicated to the assessment of knowledge about the appropriate composition of diet in patients with cardiovascular disease risk factors. The research part was carried out on grounds of the quantitative survey through a questionnaire, which was completed by patients of the Centre for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease of the General Teaching Hospital in Prague in the course of three months - from 1st November 2017 to 31st January 2018. There are one main and two partial aims to the study; the main aim was to determine knowledge about the appropriate composition of diet in patients. This aim was accomplished, patients were successful in some knowledge questions, but only a small number of them knew the right answer to...
Importance of diet in influencing the risk factors of CVD in patients treated with statins
Bártová, Kateřina ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Vaclová, Martina (referee)
Diet and other regimens are part of the treatment of dyslipidemia, where the objective is trough modification lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, to influence the cardiovascular risk and to reduce the risk of atherothrombotic compliations. The aim of this work was to investigate the importance of different diets in influencing the risk factors of KVO in patients treated with statins, i.e. to assess the dietary habits of these patients by means of a questionnaire and to monitor the changes, from before to after, of the selected anthropometric and laboratoty parameters. The study included 41 patients of an average age of age of 50 years ± 11. The duration of statin therapy: 88 % of them over half year, 12 % of them less than six months. 73 % of them do not smoke, 27 % were smokers. The dietary habits questionnaire was completed by the patient prior to education and subsequently evaluated. The monitored parameters - weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-c, non- HDL-c, LDL-c, triglycerides, glycemia, glycated hemoglobin in diabetics were evaluated before and after 2-3 months of education. Patients were predominantly familiar with the basic rules of a low fat diet but over 30% patients consume food inappropriately for the diet and over 30 % of patients did not consume foods...
Genetic determination of cholesterolemia regulation
Vlachová, Miluše ; Kovář, Jan (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee)
Most types of hypercholesterolemia are of polygenic origin. Some genes related to hypercholesterolemia are known, although all genes responsible for cholesterolemia regulation have not been characterised yet. To identify these new genes, animal models with spontaneous defects in cholesterol metabolism could be very useful. Moreover, a number of variations and polymorphisms have been found to influence blood cholesterol levels in humans. Some may also affect cholesterolemia responsiveness to dietary fat. The Prague hereditary hypercholesterolemic (PHHC) rat is a unique model of hypercholesterolemia induced by dietary cholesterol alone (without administration of cholic acid or thyrotoxic drugs). It exhibits modestly increased cholesterolemia when fed chow and responds to a diet containing cholesterol with a several-fold increase of cholesterolemia to concentrations comparable to those observed in hypercholesterolemic patients. Hypercholesterolemia in this model is characterised by accumulation of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins (IDL) enriched by cholesterol. In an experiment with tyloxapol (an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase) we found that PHHC rats on a cholesterol diet incorporated twice as much cholesterol into VLDL as Wistar rats, although liver...
Analysis of selected genetic markers in patients after heart transplant
Petříková, Nikola ; Hubáček, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee)
Heart transplantation is performed in patients with end-stage heart failure, in whom all other methods of treatment failed. The most common causes of end-stage heart failure are dilated cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease. The destiny of these patients is highly variable. Prediction of long term survival in patients after heart transplantation is not satisfactory and up to now has not been found reliable marker. Most of the patients die after heart transplantation due to cardiovascular disease. This thesis is focused on molecular genetics and statistical analysis of four single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely rs17817449 (16q12.2, FTO gene), rs2943634 (2q36.3; intergenic region), rs6922269 (6q25.1; MTHFD1L gene), and rs10757274 (9p21.3; intergenic region). According to genome wide association studies are these SNPs assosiated with cardiovascular diseases. We genotyped DNA samples of 364 heart donors and 364 heart recipients. The results were statistically compared (using OR and Pearson's χ2 test) with the control group, which consisted of samples of individuals from the general population MONICA study. We examined the genotype in patients whose hearts failed due to dilated cardiomyopathy or coronary artery disease and then in patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Furthermore, we focused on...
Evaluation of animal fat consumption of patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus
Šťovíčková, Jana ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Šnejdrlová, Michaela (referee)
This bachelor's thesis is focused on animal fat consumption of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus (DM). Content of thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The main objective of theoretical part is to provide a general description of lipids in terms of distribution, structure, characteristics and their role in human organism. In the following chapters metabolism and transport of lipids is described with more attention to details. The last part of theoretical part deals with animal fats in nutrition, mostly risk factors as a consequence of their increased consumption, and dietary measures as a prevention and therapy of CVD and DM. The practical part of bachelor's thesis is based on assessment survey. The object of this survey was the evaluation of eating habits, mainly the measure of animal fats consumption of patients with CVD and DM. Next object of interest was the evaluation of awareness, knowledge and education these patients have about dietary measures in relation to their disease. Question about the way how are these measures followed by patients was also examined. The survey was conducted in the diabetological center and also in the centre of preventive cardiology of General Teaching Hospital in Prague on patients with CVD and DM. Key words: lipids,...
Evaluation of vegetable fats consumption of patients with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia
Kubecová, Markéta ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Šnejdrlová, Michaela (referee)
The thesis deals with intake of vegetable fats in patients with CVD (Cardiovascular Disease), DM (Diabetes Mellitus) and dyslipidemia. The theoretical part deals with the distribution of lipids, as well as sources ofvarious fatty acids in the diet and their effects on our organism. The next part describes the use of vegetable oils as well as aspects of digestion of fatty acids, their absorption, transport and metabolism. The last chapter of the introduction is dedicated to diseases, in which it is necessary not only to monitor fat intake but, also, choosing those, that can postively impact onthe disease progression. The nutritional (medical) study is made on the basis of a questionnaire survey, which monitors the consumption and use of vegetable fats andfoods containing vegetable fats. Results summarize whether patients are informed and following proper diet regimen and identify mistakes they have been making. Data collection was conducted at the 3rd Department ofInternal Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine and General Teaching Hospital in Prague. Keywords: fatty acids, nutrition, metabolism, diet in disease, eating habits
Pharmacological Influence on Atherogenesis in Experimental Animal Models of Atherosclerosis
Rathouská, Jana ; Nachtigal, Petr (advisor) ; Vrablík, Michal (referee) ; Vohnout, Branislav (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and Medical Sciences Candidate: Mgr. Jana Rathouská Supervisor: Doc. PharmDr. Petr Nachtigal, Ph.D. Title of Doctoral Thesis: Pharmacological influence on atherogenesis in experimental animal models of atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis is a slow inflammatory process in arterial walls which is, as a part of cardiovascular diseases, the main source of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. However, searching for the possibilities of atherosclerosis treatment requires detailed knowledge of pathogenesis of the disease itself. The use of mouse models offers one of the possibilities of studying the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which enables a number of interventions that would not be acceptable in human medicine. By using the high content lipid diet, we are able to induce the changes of lipid spectrum in mice. Moreover, if a targeted genetic manipulation is used, one can reach considerably advanced plaques in a relatively short time period. It is also possible to interfere in the process of atherogenesis in mouse models by using some hypolipidemic drugs, for example from the statin group that were represented in our studies by atorvastatin. By observing the vessel's reactivity to atorvastatin dosage,...
Evaluation and consumption of animal fat in patients with CVD and DM
Opravilová, Jana ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Horák, Pavel (referee)
The Bachelor thesis deals with the evaluation of consumption of animal fat in patients with CVD and DM. The theoretical part deals with the distribution of lipid, lipid metabolism, the quality of each animal fats, foods containing them and their cooking. The practical part consists of a questionnaire study that tracks the incidence of animal fat and method of preparation in the diet of patients with CVD and DM. Data for this study were taken at III. Internal Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine. Keywords Animal fats, nutrition, obesity risks

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