National Repository of Grey Literature 51 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Coevolution of avian ectoparasites in the tropics
Gajdošová, Magdalena ; Munclinger, Pavel (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Host-parasite associations are born by cospeciations or by host switches. Feather lice have traditionally been used as model parasites for studying these events and underlying ecological factors. By now tens of analyses have addressed comparisons of host and parasite phylogenies to study cospeciations and host switches in lice, however, these analyses are strongly biased towards the temperate zone. Tropical environment could provide new insight into the origin of host-parasite interactions, because it is ecologically unique. This work aims to supplement the knowledge of host-parasite associations in lice using coevolution analyses of two feather lice genera and their passerine hosts in tropical rainforest in Cameroon. It shows that lice in the tropics cospeciate rarely. To assess whether host switches are non-random and occur preferentially between hosts with specific traits, this work also analyses relations between parasite genetic distances and hosts' trait similarities. No effect of host morphology and spatial distribution was found. However, genetic distances of the lice strongly correlate with genetic distances of their hosts.
African rodents as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites.
Glanzová, Kristýna ; Sádlová, Jovana (advisor) ; Votýpka, Jan (referee)
Leishmania spp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) are protozoa related to the Trypanosoma genus that are causative agents of leishmaniasis. Their life cycle alternates between mammalian hosts and insect vectors. The principal vectors are phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) that occur mostly in the tropics, however, several species range to the temperate regions. Various species of rodents serve as reservoir hosts of leishmania. In endemic localities, they represent most abundant mammals and their burrows are used as breeding sites of larval stages of sand flies. In this bachelor thesis I summarize available literature about rodents that serve as reservoir hosts of six human pathogenic leishmania species present in Africa. Several species of African rodents are regarded as reservoir host of L. major and one species (Ctenodactylus gundi) as a suspected reservoir host L. tropica. On the other hand, rodent infections caused by L. aethiopica, L. infantum and L. donovani should be still considered as accidental. In the case of Leishmania sp. from Ghana, reservoir hosts are still entirely unknown. All species of proven African rodent reservoir hosts share clustered distribution in colonies where animals live in high population densities.
Monoxenous trypanosomatids of invertebrates
Havlová, Jolana ; Votýpka, Jan (advisor) ; Varga, Vladimír (referee)
The class Kinetoplastea contains free-living and parasitic species. One of the most dominant group within the class is the order Trypanosomatida which includes obligate parasites (Trypanosoma, Leishmania) infecting a wide range of hosts. Some species are serious pathogens of humans and domestic animals and cause considerable losses. However, the majority of trypanosomatids belongs to monoxenous parasites of insect which are usually harmless to their hosts. Monoxenous trypanosomatids predominantly infect Hemiptera and Diptera. This diploma thesis is focused on the detection of monoxenous trypanosomatids in cockroaches captured in the Czech Republic and cockroaches from different breedings. Cockroaches are very suitable mechanical vectors of many different pathogens (including parasites) and are significant health threat for humans and animals. First trypanosomatids in cockroaches were documented at the beginning of the 20th century, but there is no study focused on this topic specifically. Another aim of this thesis is morphological and ultramicroscopic analysis and the study of the host specificity of the recently described species Herpetomonas tarakana, isolated from a cockroach. My findings were partly used in the already published study "Diversity of trypanosomatids in cockroaches and the...

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