National Repository of Grey Literature 154 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Adverse effects of epilepsy medication in children
Arnošová, Karolína ; Herink, Josef (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biological and medicinal sciences Candidate Karolína Arnošová Consultant doc.MUDr. Josef Herink DrSc. Title of thesis Adverse effects of epilepsy medication in children The aim of this thesis was to determine the most commonly used antiepileptics in children, its adverse effects and to compare these results with the adult epileptology. In the theoretical part there are etiopathogenesis, pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, types of the seizures and epileptic syndromes described. The specifics of epilepsy treatment in children, not only pharmacotherapy, but also non-pharmacological treatment options, were documented as well. In the study there was exact half of patients treated with monotherapy and the other half with combined therapy which is not in line with the original hypothesis that assumed a predominance of monotherapy. The most commonly used antiepileptics in children were valproate (62,5 %), lamotrigine (25 %), topiramate and levetiracetame (both in 18,75 %). The hypothesis assuming a higher incidence of adverse effects in combination therapy has been confirmed. The most common adverse effects in children were the effects on total daily activity, occuring in 83,33 %, even with the mildest score on average....
Cardiovascular effects of silymarin
Ryzová, Leona ; Pourová, Jana (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
1 ABSTRACT Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Leona Ryzová Supervisor: PharmDr. Jana Pourová, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Cardiovascular effects of silymarin Aim: The aim of the diploma thesis is to summarize the existing knowledge about the mixture of natural plant substances collectively referred to as silymarin and to map the results of the latest studies focusing on the cardiovascular effects of silymarin. Main findings: Available data suggest that silymarin has positive effects on the human body, including hepatoprotective, choleretic and cholagogic, neuroprotective, anticancer and antiviral, anti-inflammatory and positive effects on diabetes mellitus. Positive effects on the cardiovascular system include protective effects on the vascular endothelium, antioxidant effects, beneficial effects on blood lipids, regulation of blood aggregation and antidiabetic effects. Although the conclusions from cardiovascular studies are not always the same, most confirm the positive effect of silymarin on the cardiovascular system. A necessary part of future research will be the search for new dosage forms in order to increase the bioavailability of silymarin, which so far limits its clinical application. Conclusion: Silymarin is a mixture of...
Topical and systemic treatment of acne vulgaris
Ackermannová, Veronika ; Hrdina, Radomír (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Student: Veronika Ackermannová Supervisor: prof. Radomír Hrdina, MD, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: Topic and systemic treatment of acne vulgaris Acne vulgaris is a skin disease affecting the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The disease manifests itself by increased sebum production, non-inflammatory (comedones) and inflammatory lesions (papules, pustules, nodules, cysts). It occurs predominantly in adolescents, but may persist into adulthood. It is a multifactorial disease, which is caused by several factors (internal and external stimuli). The major pathogenetic factors include increased sebum production, hyperkeratosis, P. acnes colonization and inflammation present. First, it is necessary to diagnose the type of acne in order to choose the right and effective therapy, because there is not only one type of acne. There are many types and variants of acne, and although they show similar symptoms (affecting the follicles of sebaceous glands), their cause often differs. There is no uniform classification system for acne vulgaris and it varies between authors. Some authors classify acne vulgaris according to severity into mild, moderate and severe, others into comedonic, papulopustular, nodulocystic...
Monitoring of basic pharmacokinetic parameters of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease
Krejčiová, Markéta ; Doležal, Martin (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Control of Pharmaceuticals Student: Markéta Krejčiová Supervisor: Prof. PharmDr. Martin Doležal, Ph.D. Supervisor specialist: Mjr. PharmDr. Jana Žďárová Karasová, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Monitoring of basic pharmacokinetic parameters of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease is a progressive irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that is globally associated with the most frequent cause of dementia. The pathophysiology of this illness is not fully understood yet. The commonly used treatment is still symptomatic, based on IAChE and memantine. Great attention is paid particularly to IAChEs and their derivatives, which arise from the basic structure of tacrine and 7-MEOTA. These two molecules were used as a reference for comparison with newly synthetized IAChE derivatives KB-36 and KB-38. Changes in plasma and brain tissue concentration levels were studied. The in vivo study was performed on rats (male, tribe Wistar). Equimolar doses were administered intramuscularly. Samples of plasma and brain tissue were evaluated by using HPLC techniques. The main aim was to determine the real concentration levels of all IAChE in both...
In vitro Methods for the Prediction of Blood Brain Barrier Penetration
Zálešáková, Helena ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Čečková, Martina (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Helena Zálešáková Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršálová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro Methods for the Prediction of Blood Brain Barrier Penetration This thesis deals with the correlation between two in vitro models simulating the blood- brain barrier (HEB, hematoencephalic barrier) and their comparison in terms of practical use. These are the PAMPA (Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay) method and the MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) cell line, which are models for potential central nervous system (CNS) penetration screening. Within this work, a set of sixteen standard drugs were measured. The procedure was similar in both methods in order to obtain information on the amount of test substances passing through the membrane from the donor portion of the plate to the acceptor. The concentration in the donor portion was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The main difference between these methods is the membrane through which the substances penetrate. In the case of PAMPA, a lipid solution that has been isolated from pig brain (PBL, polar brain lipid) is used. This lipid simulates the phospholipid membrane of the brain capillary endothelium. In the MDCK model, the membrane...
Role of selected ABC and SLC transporters in transmembrane permeability of maraviroc: effect on transport in placenta
Matiašková, Zuzana ; Čečková, Martina (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and toxikology Student: Zuzana Matiašková Supervisor: doc. PharmDr. Martina Čečková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Role of selected ABC and SLC transporters in transmembrane permeability of maraviroc: effect on transport in placenta Antiretroviral drug maraviroc is an inhibitor of CCR5-trophic HIV virus and belongs to the group of entry inhibitors. Nowadays, maraviroc is administered as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) primarily in adults, children over the age of two and pregnant women to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus. The knowledge of interactions of maraviroc with drug transporters in placenta is crucial for optimizing the therapy during pregnancy, both in terms of efficacy and potential adverse effects. Maraviroc is known substrate of ABCB1 transporter, which plays a protective role to the fetus by its efflux activity in the apical membrane of trophoblast. However, the results of recent study employing dually perfused human placenta suggest involvement of other transport mechanisms in the maraviroc transplacental pharmaocokinetics, especially those operating in the opposite direction to ABCB1. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro studies whether, besides ABCB1,...
Administration of cytostatic drugs and extravasation
Rohová, Marie ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Pourová, Jana (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Heyrovského 1203, Hradec Králové Department of pharmacology and toxicology Candidate: Mgr. Marie Rohová Consultant: PharmDr. Marie Vopršalová, CSc. Title of Thesis: Administration of cytostatic drugs and extravasation Key words: extravasation of cytostatics, vesicants, irritants, specific measures This thesis deals with the issue of extravasation in intravenous administration of cytostatics in oncologic patients, as one of the most feared complication of cytostatic therapy, which may has a serious irreversible consequences for patients. Extravasation describes the unintended leakage of drug from vessel into surrounding tissues or the unintended instillation of drug directly into the perivascular tissues. The severity of tissue injuries depends on several factors, including the volume and concentration of the cytotoxic agent, the localization of extravasation, the sensitivity of the tissue and the vesicant potential of the cytotoxic agent. In order to avoid extravasation, the principles of safe drug use must be followed, and if extravasation occurs, the recommendations for the drug should be known and followed. This is the only way to prevent serious damage to the patient, or significantly reduce the consequences. The experimental...
The effects of some flavonoids on isolated rat aortic rings
Fišrová, Martina ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Pourová, Jana (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Kralove Department of Farmacology & Toxikology Student: Martina Fišrová Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršalová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: The effects of some flavonoids on isolated rat aortic rings Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites that are profusely represented in nature. They are known for their wide range of effects and many of them have beneficial effects on the human body. Above all, they have anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and effects on cardiovascular system - they cause vasodilation. The aim of this diploma thesis was to investigate vasorelaxation effects of selected flavonoids from the group of flavonolignans - 2,3-dehydrosilybin A (DHS-A), 2,3-dehydrosilybin B (DHS-B) and metabolites, which are components of the silymarin complex found in the plant Silybum marianum (Asteraceae). The vasorelaxation potential of tested substances was verified in ex vivo conditions on isolated rat aortic rings. The effect of increasing doses of individual substances in precontracted aortic rings with intact endothelium was measured. From the measured values, the DRC curves were constructed and EC50 values were determined. The analysis of the results shows, that DHS-A (EC50 = 30,1 mol/l) had the most signifiant activity. Its...
In vitro Methods for the Prediction of Blood Brain Barrier Penetration
Zálešáková, Helena ; Vopršalová, Marie (advisor) ; Čečková, Martina (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology & Toxicology Student: Helena Zálešáková Supervisor: PharmDr. Marie Vopršálová, CSc. Title of diploma thesis: In vitro Methods for the Prediction of Blood Brain Barrier Penetration This thesis deals with the correlation between two in vitro models simulating the blood- brain barrier (HEB, hematoencephalic barrier) and their comparison in terms of practical use. These are the PAMPA (Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay) method and the MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) cell line, which are models for potential central nervous system (CNS) penetration screening. Within this work, a set of sixteen standard drugs were measured. The procedure was similar in both methods in order to obtain information on the amount of test substances passing through the membrane from the donor portion of the plate to the acceptor. The concentration in the donor portion was measured by UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The main difference between these methods is the membrane through which the substances penetrate. In the case of PAMPA, a lipid solution that has been isolated from pig brain (PBL, polar brain lipid) is used. This lipid simulates the phospholipid membrane of the brain capillary endothelium. In the MDCK model, the membrane...
Role of selected ABC and SLC transporters in transmembrane permeability of maraviroc: effect on transport in placenta
Matiašková, Zuzana ; Čečková, Martina (advisor) ; Vopršalová, Marie (referee)
Charles University Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmacology and toxikology Student: Zuzana Matiašková Supervisor: doc. PharmDr. Martina Čečková, Ph.D. Title of diploma thesis: Role of selected ABC and SLC transporters in transmembrane permeability of maraviroc: effect on transport in placenta Antiretroviral drug maraviroc is an inhibitor of CCR5-trophic HIV virus and belongs to the group of entry inhibitors. Nowadays, maraviroc is administered as part of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) primarily in adults, children over the age of two and pregnant women to reduce the risk of transmission of HIV to the fetus. The knowledge of interactions of maraviroc with drug transporters in placenta is crucial for optimizing the therapy during pregnancy, both in terms of efficacy and potential adverse effects. Maraviroc is known substrate of ABCB1 transporter, which plays a protective role to the fetus by its efflux activity in the apical membrane of trophoblast. However, the results of recent study employing dually perfused human placenta suggest involvement of other transport mechanisms in the maraviroc transplacental pharmaocokinetics, especially those operating in the opposite direction to ABCB1. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro studies whether, besides ABCB1,...

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