National Repository of Grey Literature 32 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Effect of ageing on haematological and immunological traits in great tit (Parus major)
Krajzingrová, Tereza ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Remeš, Vladimír (referee)
v III. Abstract (EN) According to the Disposable soma theory, senescence is mainly influenced by adaptive allocation of resources among the physical growth, reproduction and self-maintaining processes, which depend on expected survival of an individual. The amount of allocated resources may be influenced by external environmental factors such as heavy metal pollution or by inner factor e.g. reproduction. The aim of my diploma thesis was to clarify the relationships between senescence, selected haematological traits, reproduction and efficiency of innate immunity mechanism. Moreover, we are interested in the role of heavy metal pollution in ageing and haematology. The heterophiles to lymphocytes ratio (H/L) was used as a marker of long-term stress caused by these physiological expenses. This study summarizes partial data collected within the long-term research of great tits (Parus major) in Prague, Czech Republic, I participated in. We have more than 300 samples of repeatedly captured individuals at our disposal. The structure of this unique dataset allows us to observe changes in the traits of our interest during an avian lifespan. Our results show that during aging, males experience a noticeable increase in the H/L ratio compared to females. Although we have not found the effect of age on the brood size,...
Influence of anthropogenic pollution by heavy metals on freshwater invertebrates
Varvažovská, Adéla ; Tropek, Robert (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
This bachelor thesis summarizes the effects of heavy metals on freshwater invertebrates in post- industrial areas. There are heavy metals of dual origin in nature, essential and non-essential. Non-essential heavy metals which get to nature by human activities can have a negative impact on lives of organisms in the ecosystem. If the organisms can't cope with and adapt to heavy metals, it can be lethal for them. Some organisms are more tolerant than others and can survive in heavy metal concentrations which would be a big fatal to other organisms. In case of dangerous concentration for more resistant species, the resistant species create special adaptations which help them survive and prosper in the polluted areas. Mechanisms and adaptations that prevent the body from damaging cell structures and organs in the body can be of different nature. Morphological changes consist of changing the color, shape of the body or removing parts where heavy metals accumulate. Physiological mechanisms help to modify the metabolism and mode of accumulation of substances in the body. Many mechanisms, as well as the consequences of heavy metals, can be used to bioindicate polluted waters. Such observation can then be used in other disciplines, for exampl in environmental protection. Study of documents from professional...
Evolution of immune response driven by increasing pathogen virulence
Hančová, Klára ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Macháček, Tomáš (referee)
Coevolution is relationship between two or more species reciprocally affect each other's evolution. Coevolution is also known as host-parasite interaction where parasite becomes the driving force of host evolution. In an effort to escape the parasite, hosts create different mechanisms that protect themself from infection or minimize its impact. This text is written to acquaint the reader with the host-parasite interaction in response to improving parasite. In systems with myxoma virus and Mycoplasma gallisepticum are described changes of virulence and manipulation with host immune response. Myxomatosis should be known for its increasing virulence because of horizontal transmission. But after many years coevolution between European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) settled on low value in three different places. Second system represents young evolution between mycoplasma and house finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) which offer opportunity to watch new beggining of defense mechanism against parasite.
Polymorphism of the transcription factor NF-κB and Toll-like receptor 2 in a production population of cattle (Bos taurus L.)
Samaké, Kalifa ; Novák, Karel (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
The broader purpose of the work is to find and interpret polymorphism in the genes of natural immunity of cattle to be used to improve disease resistance. The NGS method on the PacBio platform was applied for the resequencing of the gene for the key receptor of innate immunity TLR2 and two genes coding for the components of the downstream transcriptional factor NF-κB. In the population of 149 bulls of the Czech Simmental breed, 22 polymorphisms were found in the gene NFKB1 (5 new), while in the NFKB2 gene 13 SNP were found (10 new). 21 SNP were found in the TLR2 gene (3 new). Of the 56 found polymorphisms, 6 SNPs were nonsynonymous. One SNP leads to a change R474G in the NFKB1 product and five to changes E63D, R152Q, I211V, R563H and H665Q in the protein TLR2. Knowledge of the haplotypes facilitated the development of individual genotyping reactions. In TLR2, a high number of haplotypes was detected, both from the PacBio reads and the statistical reconstruction. In addition, two clusters of haplotypes were ditinguished inTLR2, possibly due to diversifying selection or introgression. The knowledge of genetic diversity in the population allows for the planned association studies with health data. Localization in functional domains allow to define the change with the greatest effect, in particular...
Relationship between reactivity of immune system and quality of human body odour
Schwambergová, Dagmar ; Havlíček, Jan (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
It was previously proposed that expression of secondary sexual characteristics may provide cues to individual's immunocompetence. Body odour could partly serve as one of such characteristics, which provides crucial information about potentional partner even in humans. The main aim of the diploma thesis was to test a relationship between body odour quality and reactivity of immune system. In empirical part of the study we collected body odour samples from 21 men aged between 18-40 years before and two weeks after the vaccination against hepatitis A and B (Twinrix) and meningococcus (Menveo). The participant's blood samples were obtained three times to determine levels of IgG and IgM antibodies (markers of reactivity of immune system), testosterone, cortisol and CRP levels. In the second part of the study, a panel of 88 female raters aged 18-40 assessed body odour samples for their attractiveness, intensity and healthiness. In contrast to our expectations, we found no significant association between levels of antibodies induced by vaccination and perceived body odour attractiveness and health. Simultaneously, there were no significant changes in body odour ratings, neither in levels of testosterone and cortisol ratings, before and after the vaccination. However, we found a negative association...
Variability of the domestic chicken breeds in selected immunological traits of hen and egg
Bílková, Barbora ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Plachý, Jiří (referee) ; Trefil, Pavel (referee)
The avian immune system is a complex system of defence mechanisms that protect bird hosts against threats from ubiquitous pathogens. According to the co-evolutionary models, variability in immune traits of hosts is the key component providing ability to adapt and enhance their defence mechanisms in presence of constant selective pathogen pressure. Domestic chicken (Gallus gallus f. domestica) is used as a model organism in avian biology and also is one of the most important food-producing animals, not only for their meat but also for the egg production. Unfortunately, in research usually only inbred chicken lines are used and modern poultry husbandry is tight with unilateral breeding towards highly productive breeds. Those approaches decrease intra-population polymorphism in chickens. However, especially in case of farm animals, searching and extending the pool of immune variability and enhancing pathogen resistance is crucial for sustaining healthy and biologically secure populations and their products. Morphologically highly distinct traditional chicken breeds, which have evolved for hundreds years under different selective pressures, may represent this desirable immunological variability. In my thesis I described variability in chosen immunological traits, haematological parameters and proteomic...
Evolution of a dog domestication and genetic diversity of the recent breeds.
Ungrová, Lenka ; Černá Bolfíková, Barbora (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
The origin, timing and the developement of the first stages of domestication are the most frequently studied topics within the evolutionary domestication. Even there are a lot of studies, there are also a lot question that have not been answered. Consequent processes are not less interesting. It is known that the first prototypes of dog breeds were formed much earlier before the first breeding clubs were established. We can say, that the first selection was for the type of work which should be carried by the dog, besides the selection for tameness. The next step of selection included selection for the specific phenotypic traits and often involved targeted hybridization between emerging breeds. Over the past 200 years, more than 400 breeds with a unique combination of traits were recognized. This thesis aims to map the emergence of modern breeds from a genetic point of view. Thesis also summarizes the effect of evolution and domestication on specific traits and genes and how they affected the genetic diversity of dog breeds.
Evolution of host specificity in avian influenza
Divín, Daniel ; Vinkler, Michal (advisor) ; Horníková, Lenka (referee)
Avian influenza is a dangerous viral disease, which threats animals and people's health and nowadays evokes great concerns linked with pandemic threat. Veterinary procedures tries to limit spreading of infection by eradication of all birds nearby the outbreak place of the disease to limit as much economic damage as possible. However, there is obvious considerable variability in susceptibility, course and transmission of the disease in different species. In model species (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica a Gallus gallus f. domestica), we can see a big difference in course of the disease linked with different equipment of immunity genes. There is fragmented information about other species. The main aim is therefore to summarize knowledge about avian influenza, it's origin, evolution, diversity, spreading in environment and susceptibility of different species to this disease.
Development of selected CD markers and their role in the phylogenesis of human immune system
Podolská, Tereza ; Růžičková, Šárka (advisor) ; Vinkler, Michal (referee)
In the first part of the thesis we investigated the origin of selected surface CD markers of human, namely CD19, CD20, CD21, CD24, CD27 and CD38 molecules. In addition, nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these molecules were compared using in silico approach. Bioinformatic databases of sequences of selected molecules at DNA, mRNA and protein level, such as GeneBank, NCBI BLAST, Homologene and OrthoDB, have been used. The intent was to identify at the domain level the first organism in which it is possible to find the searched molecule. At the N-terminal domain of the CD38 of birds, a sequence showing significant similarity to the archaebacterial flagellin domain was found. This flagellin sequence in the CD38 avian molecule is located in the region of transmembrane domain, indicating that the occurrence of this sequence might be related to the formation of the transmembrane domain. The approach used here could be implemented in comparative hybridization studies as a tool in the preparatory non-laboratory phase of the research of the presence of paralogs and orthologs in phylogenetically old species. Keywords: CD marker, immunocyte, B lymphocyte, innate and adaptive immunity, sequence database, amino acid, nucleotide

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