National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Sleep correlates of early risk of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents.
Šebela, Antonín ; Goetz, Michal (advisor) ; Příhodová, Iva (referee) ; Vevera, Jan (referee)
Background: Reports of subjective sleep impairments have been replicated in adults with bipolar disorder (BD) and young BD patients. Furthermore, circadian rhythm alterations are a core feature of BD. Despite the impairment in circadian rhythms and altered sleep included in various heuristic developmental models of BD, thus far, biomarkers in population at risk for BD have not been sufficiently objectively validated. Thus, we conducted: a) Explorative study of sleep and rest-activity circadian rhythm among offspring of BD parents. b) Study of sleep and rest-activity circadian rhythm among offspring of BD parents without the presence of psychopathology (except depression and anxiety disorders) based on our exploratory findings. Methods: a) 14 days of actigraphic assessment and subjective scales (Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire, PSQ; the Morningness/Eveningness Questionnaire, MEQ; and The General Behavior Inventory Sleep Subscale, GBISS) to assess circadian preference, and to identify sleep impairment symptoms. Psychopathology was assessed using psychiatric interview. b) ≥ 14 days of actigraphic assessment with advanced methods to assess the chronotype, social jet lag and sleep macrostructure, psychiatric interview and subjective psychometric scales to assess the full psychopathology profile. Results:...
Czech version of the Personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5): Theoretical background, psychometric properties and implications for clinical practice.
Riegel, Karel Dobroslav ; Preiss, Marek (advisor) ; Vevera, Jan (referee) ; Praško Pavlov, Ján (referee)
2 ABSTRACT In the Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD), the diagnosis of specific personality disorders is obtained through an evaluation of the level of impairment in personality functioning and an assessment of dimensional personality traits associated in 25 "lower order" facets and 5 "higher order" domains. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) was developed for examination of personality traits within this system. This Ph.D. thesis covers five relevant publications regarding AMPD, particularly PID-5. First, the authors introduce the theoretical background of the PID-5. Attention is paid on its ease of use, data interpretation and use of these data for treatment planning in different clinical settings. Two empirical studies test PID-5 psychometric properties (internal consistency, validity, discrimination capacity and unidimensional structure) in the sample of community volunteers (n=351) and a clinical sample of psychiatric patients (n=143). PID-5 was administered individually and in a group setting using pen-paper method and online data collection. 33 respondents completed the inventory twice to check test-retest reliability. Authors presumed, evidence will be found to support internal consistency and convergent validity of the PID-5 personality trait domains, as well as their...
Victimization of persons with serious mental illness.
Černý, Martin ; Vevera, Jan (advisor) ; Harsa, Pavel (referee) ; Látalová, Klára (referee)
Purpose: To estimate a) the state of the research of violent behavior and victimization of patients suffering with schizophrenia; b) to identify the prevalence of violent behavior and victimization in patients with schizophrenia and to study predictors of violent behavior. Method: a) detailed analysis of relevant studies in the PubMed database; b) data on violent behavior and victimization in the last six months, physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence, substance abuse and post traumatic stress disorder were gathered in 158 patients with psychotic illness and matched comparison group. Additional information was collected from collateral informants. Several regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with recent violent behavior. Results: a) From relevant studies of patients suffering with schizophrenia 72% (n=176) exemined aggressive behavior, 23% (n=55) victimization, and 5% (n=13) both. b) In the sample, the presence of a psychotic disorder was associated with an increased risk of assaults (OR=3.80; 95% CI 2.060-7.014). Additional risk factors in persons with and without psychosis included recent physical victimization (OR=7.09; 95% CI 3.922-12.819), childhood maltreatment (OR=3.15; 95% CI 1.877-5.271), the level of drug use (OR=1.13; 95% CI 1.063-...
Psychopathology, mental disorders and mitochondrial disorders
Sigitova, Ekaterina ; Raboch, Jiří (advisor) ; Doubek, Pavel (referee) ; Vevera, Jan (referee)
This study investigates the connection between different pathophysiological processes in mitochondria and psychopathological symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. Changes in activity of selected components of the respiratory chain and overall respiratory rate of mitochondria were analyzed in patients with bipolar disorder when compared to healthy controls. Diagnostic scales and questionnaires, high-resolution respirometry, radiochemical and spectroscopic methods were used. 37 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (F31) and 21 healthy volunteers were involved in the study. Statistical analysis included the methods of parametric and nonparametric analysis, factor analysis, one-way analysis of variance and linear regression analysis. Obtained results revealed that cellular energetics plays a great role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. There was a mild difference between different mitochondrial enzymes activity in patients within manic phases and depressive phases of the disease. Changes in mitochondrial respiration in patients with BD as compared to healthy controls were also shown. Mitochondrial respiration indexes for patients with BD in remission as compared to healthy controls were altered in accordance with the previous phase of the disease. Association between the...
Discrete Psychopathology Development in Foreign Military Mission Veterans
Král, Pavel ; Weiss, Petr (advisor) ; Slabá, Šárka (referee) ; Vevera, Jan (referee)
Deploying soldiers in foreign missions undoubtedly represents a significant burden associated with the risk of harm to their physical and mental health. Regarding the mental health, stress represents the most significant risk factor traditionally associated with the deployment. In fact its influence during the deployment tends to be continuous since the amount of different stressors is plentiful. Traditionally, the attention of clinical psychologists, psychiatrists and researchers associated with foreign operations and their possible consequences was targeted mainly on (the) PTSD, depression or addictions. However, it appears that the soldiers also suffer from other mental health disorders. This thesis is focused not on disorders but their partial symptoms, predominantly neurotic. Initial research hypothesis presumes that if we compare the population of soldiers who have been deployed in a foreign mission with those who have not been deployed we will find (the) significant differences between the groups. We expect those who have been deployed to show a higher rate of psychopathological symptoms, probably subclinical and therefore discrete, but still more prevalent comparing to those who have never experienced the military mission environment. The data have been collected through the questionnaire...
The use of coercive measures in psychiatry
Nawka, Alexander ; Raboch, Jiří (advisor) ; Vevera, Jan (referee) ; Dragašek, Jozef (referee)
Psychiatry has unique status among other medical disciplines where patients` autonomy might be restricted in the best interest of the patient in order to both cure and control the patient. Coercive measures such as seclusion, physical restraint or forced medication are widely used in clinical practice as methods for managing acute, disturbed or violent psychiatric patients. This thesis was carried out as a part of the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) in which centers from twelve European countries recruited involuntary admitted patients. The research questions of this thesis were the following: what are the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients who receive coercive measures; what types of coercive measures are used with involuntarily treated patients; what are the internal and external risk factors for their use; and finally what are the gender differences among involuntary admitted coerced patients with schizophrenia. All together we evaluated a group of 2,030 involuntarily admitted patients, in which 1,462 coercive measures were used with 770 patients (38%). The percentage of patients receiving coercive measures in each country varied between 21% and 59%. These twelve countries varied greatly in...
The picture of mental illness in the print media in three central European countries
Nawková, Lucie ; Jirák, Roman (advisor) ; Bražinová, Alexandra (referee) ; Vevera, Jan (referee)
Media are considered to be the public's primary source of information regarding mental illness. Evidence suggests that media representations of people with psychiatric disorders are frequently negative and contribute to their stigmatization. On the other hand, media can play an important role in reducing this stigmatisation by providing adequate information about this topic and engaging in antistigma campaigns. Up to now there was no standardised measurement of the stigma of mental illness in print media using clearly operationalized definitions. The objectives of this project were twofold; to develop a standardised and objective instrument to measure stigma of mental illness in print media; and to conduct an analysis of the current coverage on mental health/illness issues in Czech, Croatian, and Slovak print media. The development of the Picture of Mental Illness in Newspapers (PICMIN) instrument was based on the principles of content analysis, a research technique for making replicable and valid inferences from text to the kontext in their use. The instrument consists of eleven descriptive and five analytical categories. The most interesting findings based on the analysis of media representations of mental illness were; a similarly high level of stigmatizing articles across countries, clearly...
název v anglickém jazyce není uveden
Vevera, Jan ; Papežová, Hana (advisor) ; Mohr, Pavel (referee) ; Yamamotová, Anna (referee)
Závěr Naše výsledky tedy ukazují, že ve stabilním zdravotním systému zneužívání návykových látek není hlavní příčinou násilného chování u schizofreniků. Prevence zneužívání návykových látek tedy není dostatečnou strategií к redukci násilného chování u těchto pacientů. К jeho redukci by spíše mohly přispět terapeutické intervence cílené na zvládnutí impulsivních stavů a poruch osobnosti, které se v současnosti jeví jako hlavní příčiny násilného chování schizofreniků (Nolan et al., 1999; Nolan et al., 2003). Zavedení psychoterapeutických technik, cílených na tyto charakteristiky, jako je například kognitivně behaviorální terapie zaměřená na zvládání zlosti, už ukazují slibné výsledky u pacientů s PTSD, psychotickými poruchami a poruchami psychického vývoje (Chemtob et al., 1997; Novaco, 2003). Terapie atypickými antipsychotiky, která podle současných poznatků zlepšuje kognitivní fungování u pacientů se schizofrenií (Bilder et al., 2002) , by mohla vést к redukci útoků, vznikajících na základě špatného pochopení situace. Vzhledem к nízkému počtu pacientů, zneužívajících návykové látky, se domníváme, že násilné chování zaznamenané v naší studii reprezentuje násilí, které primárně souvisí s podstatou psychopatologických příznaků, především s poruchami kontroly impulsů, poruchami osobnosti a psychotickými...

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