National Repository of Grey Literature 75 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Study of barrier lipids in the skin and skin models
Sochorová, Michaela ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Zimčík, Petr (referee) ; Salavec, Miloslav (referee)
1 Abstract Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry Candidate: Mgr. Michaela Sochorová Supervisor: prof. PharmDr. Kateřina Vávrová, Ph.D. Title of doctoral thesis: Study of barrier lipids in the skin and skin models The barrier lipids are found in the intercellular spaces of the uppermost layer of epidermis - stratum corneum (SC). These lipids comprise an approximately equimolar mixture of ceramides (Cer), fatty acids (FA) and cholesterol (Chol). The composition and organization of the lipid mixture is unique and provides a barrier, which protects organism against harmful effects from the surroundings and, at the same time, it protects body from excessive water loss and contributes to homeostasis maintenance. Skin barrier disruption, including altered barrier lipid composition and organization, was described in many skin diseases, for example atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or skin cancer. Study and therapy of these diseases are limited by their complex pathophysiology and a lack of biological material (human skin). Therefore, skin models are appropriate and useful tools for study of skin diseases. The skin models differ in their simplicity/complexity and their preparation therefore they can provide different information. Model lipid membranes are...
Synthesis and evaluation of transdermal drug permeation enhancers
Kopečná, Monika ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Doležal, Pavel (referee) ; Hampl, František (referee)
Penetration enhancers are compounds that facilitate transdermal drug delivery, which is an advantageous pathway of drug administration (compared to conventional methods). However, skin acts as formidable barrier enabling terrestrial life by protecting the inner body from the environmental conditions, microbes and substances. Thus, for drug administration via this pathway, some approach to temporary increase the skin permeability (e.g. permeation enhancer) should be employed. Despite the existence of many enhancer classes, there is still a need for new compounds enhancing broader spectrum of drugs, with reversible mode of action and better safety profile. One of the promising approaches is to explore natural compounds with low toxicity and irritation potential. In this thesis, I first studied various glucose and galactose derivatives bearing structural fragments that were responsible for enhancing activity of previously studied enhancers (e.g. amino acid derivatives, fatty acids and alcohols, modified ceramides). A detailed examination of these sugar- based compounds revealed potent glucoside and galactoside enhancers (12Glc6N and A15) comparable to or better than Span 20 with reversible mode of action and acceptable toxicity on keratinocyte and fibroblast cell lines. Another part of my work builds...
Connection between completion of weight loss program and self efficacy in obese people
Vávrová, Kateřina ; Hrachovinová, Tamara (advisor) ; Rodriguez Manchola, Mabel Virginia (referee)
The thesis deals with connections between completion of reduced course and self-efficacy of obese people. The theoretical part deals with definition of obesity, its prevalence and aspects of its treatment. A chapter of the theoretical part focuses on self-efficacy and its connections to obesity and physical activity. The last part is about general self-efficacy. The empirical part describes physical activity of obese respondents, changes in their physical activity self-efficacy and their general self-efficacy after completion of reduced course. The questionnaires about the level of physical activity and physical activity self-efficacy were created by author of the thesis. General self-efficacy was measured by General self-efficacy scale. Data were obtained in the first and last lesson of reduced courses. A paired-samples t-test was conducted to compare changes in both areas of self-efficacy. It has been found that frequency of respondents physical activity was insufficient. The results suggest that connection between completion of reduced course and general self-efficacy exist. On the other hand there was not significant difference between individual's physical self-efficacy before reduced course and after its completion. Keywords: obesity, self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, general...
Influence of cholesterol concentration on permeability and microstructure of model skin barrier lipid membranes
Červená, Martina ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Zbytovská, Jarmila (referee)
Cholesterol is a substance of a steroidal nature that has a number of functions in the human body. One of them is also an irreplaceable role in the proper functioning of the skin barrier. Cholesterol is an integral part of the lipid matrix, together with ceramides and free fatty acids in an equimolar ratio (1: 1: 1), and 5% cholesterol sulfate, which fills the intercellular space between stratum corneum cells and is responsible for the barrier properties of the skin. Cholesterol is therefore necessary for epidermal homeostasis, but its role in SC permeability is unknown. The aim of this work was to study the influence of cholesterol concentration on the permeability and microstructure of model lipid membranes of the skin barrier. Eight sets of model membranes with decreasing cholesterol concentrations (100%, 80%, 70%, 60%, 40%, 20%, 0%) and cholesterol alone were studied for which permeability and microstructure were monitored.The study of permeability of membranes was carried out in the Franz diffusion cells by measuring four permeation parameters: water loss, electrical impedance measurement, and the cumulative amount of two model drugs (theophylline and indomethacin). The microstructure of these model membranes was verified by X-ray powder diffraction. X-ray powder diffraction measurements...
Synthesis and study of 1-O-acylceramides
Jon, Vojtěch ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Opálka, Lukáš (referee)
The extracellular matrix of the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), consists of ceramides (Cer), cholesterol (Chol), free fatty acids (FFA) and cholesteryl sulfate (CholS). Cer play an important role in the correct barrier function of mammalian epidermis. A new type of sphingolipids, i.e., 1-O-acyl-Cer, have been found in human SC very recently; however, their role in the SC is unknown. These Cer species contain sphingosine (S) that is N- acylated with non-hydroxylated or α- hydroxylated fatty acid, and moreover, hydroxyl group at C1 in sphingosine is esterified by an additional fatty acid (lignoceric acid, C24 or palmitic acid, C16). Because 1-O-acyl-Cer are not commercially available, we aimed to synthesize physiological 1-O-acyl Cer, i.e., Cer-24NS16, Cer-16NS16 and Cer-24AS16. Moreover, we aimed to study their behaviour on permeability and microstructure of model skin lipid membranes. The 1-O-acyl-Cer were synthesized by an acylation of Cer-NS16 or Cer-AS16 with palmitic or lignoceric acid using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide and 4- dimethylaminopyridine. Cer-AS16 was prepared by α-bromination of palmitic acid, substitution of bromine by hydroxyl and N-acylation of sphingosine by the prepared acid in the presence N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide...
Study of Effect of Ceramide Hydroxylation on Permeability and Microstructure of Model Lipid Membranes
Kováčik, Andrej ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Uhriková, Daniela (referee) ; Šklubalová, Zdeňka (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Department of Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry Candidate Mgr. Andrej Kováčik Supervisor prof. PharmDr. Kateřina Vávrová, Ph.D. Title of Doctoral Thesis Study of Effect of Ceramide Hydroxylation on Permeability and Microstructure of Model Lipid Membranes Ceramides (Cer) occur in intracellular spaces of the stratum corneum, the outermost mammalian epidermal layer, where they along with other lipids (free fatty acids, cholesterol) form a skin lipid barrier. Besides sphingosine- (Cer NS) and dihydrosphingosine-based Cer (Cer NdS), in the healthy mammalian epidermis some polar Cer are present, i.e., Cer based on phytosphingosine (with hydroxyl group in position 4, i.e., phytoceramides) and Cer based on 6-hydroxysphingosine (with hydroxyl group in position 6, i.e., 6- hydroxyceramides). However, the role of phytoceramides (Cer NP) and 6 hydroxyceramides (Cer NH) in the skin barrier function has not been clarified. Moreover, 6 hydroxyceramides are not commercially available. Therefore, the first aim of this work was to synthesize physiological 6-hydroxyceramides. The synthesis of 6- hydroxylated Cer, i.e., Cer NH with long (C24:0) and Cer EOH with ultralong acyl with ester-linked linoleic acid is reported. The triple bond was reduced...
Synthesis of ceramide NS using Grubbs metathesis
Obrdlík, Daniel ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Karabanovich, Galina (referee)
Ceramides are group of lipids which belong to sphingolipids. Skin ceramides have several functions in the organisms. They are important part of the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the epidermis, where they participate in the barrier function of the skin. Furthermore, ceramides are secondary messengers in cell apoptosis and participate in many metabolic processes. Ceramides are composed of sphingoid base, which is N-acylated by fatty acid. Sphingoid base can be sphingosine, phytosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine or 6- hydroxysphingosine. Lower level of ceramides in the stratum corneum is associated with various skin diseases especially atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Manifestations of these diseases is significantly improved by topical administration of ceramide. Exogenously administered ceramides help regenerate damaged skin and improve hydration of the skin. However, it is not fully known, in which way topically administered ceramides improve the progress of diseases. The aim of this work is synthesize physiological ceramide NS by using Grubbs metathesis reactions and optimize the conditions for achieving the highest yields. Synthesis of ceramide NS was based on pentadecan-1-ol, which was eliminated to terminal alkene. The elimination was carried out in three different...
Study of Effect of Ceramide Hydroxylation on Permeability and Microstructure of Model Lipid Membranes
Kováčik, Andrej ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Uhriková, Daniela (referee) ; Šklubalová, Zdeňka (referee)
Charles University, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Department of Organic and Bioorganic Chemistry Candidate Mgr. Andrej Kováčik Supervisor prof. PharmDr. Kateřina Vávrová, Ph.D. Title of Doctoral Thesis Study of Effect of Ceramide Hydroxylation on Permeability and Microstructure of Model Lipid Membranes Ceramides (Cer) occur in intracellular spaces of the stratum corneum, the outermost mammalian epidermal layer, where they along with other lipids (free fatty acids, cholesterol) form a skin lipid barrier. Besides sphingosine- (Cer NS) and dihydrosphingosine-based Cer (Cer NdS), in the healthy mammalian epidermis some polar Cer are present, i.e., Cer based on phytosphingosine (with hydroxyl group in position 4, i.e., phytoceramides) and Cer based on 6-hydroxysphingosine (with hydroxyl group in position 6, i.e., 6- hydroxyceramides). However, the role of phytoceramides (Cer NP) and 6 hydroxyceramides (Cer NH) in the skin barrier function has not been clarified. Moreover, 6 hydroxyceramides are not commercially available. Therefore, the first aim of this work was to synthesize physiological 6-hydroxyceramides. The synthesis of 6- hydroxylated Cer, i.e., Cer NH with long (C24:0) and Cer EOH with ultralong acyl with ester-linked linoleic acid is reported. The triple bond was reduced...
The permeability and microstructure of model stratum corneum lipid membranes: comparison of non-hydroxylated and (R)- and (S)-α-hydroxylated ceramides
Šilarová, Michaela ; Vávrová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Zbytovská, Jarmila (referee)
Ceramides are lipid components in the uppermost layer of the skin, stratum corneum and they are essential for correct function of a skin barrier. In the stratum corneum, ceramides with cholesterol and free fatty acids are in equimolar ratio. Ceramides contain sphingoid bases, which are amino alcohols sphingosine, phytosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine or 6- hydroxysphingosine. These sphingoid bases are N-acylated by non-hydroxylated, α- hydroxylated or ω-hydroxylated fatty acid, mostly by lignoceric (C24) acid. The aim of this work was to study the permeability and microstructure of the model membranes containing non-hydroxylated ceramides. Moreover, we aimed to study the effect of additional α-hydroxyl group in ceramides including the effect of stereochemistry in position 2. We prepared model membranes based on Cer, free fatty acids (C16-24), cholesterol and a small amount of cholesteryl sulfate (5 wt%). We investigated four permeability markers: electrical impedance, water loss through the membrane, flux of theophylline and flux of indomethacin. The microstructure and miscibility of ceramides with other lipids were studied by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray powder diffraction. The results from experiments showed some differences between ceramides. For example the effect of the type of sphingoid...
Dissolution testing of tablets containing theophylline and mixtures of two types of calcium hydrogen phosphates and microcrystalline cellulose
Vávrová, Kateřina ; Ondrejček, Pavel (advisor) ; Svačinová, Petra (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradci Králové Department of Pharmaceutical technology Consultant: PharmDr. Pavel Ondrejček, Ph.D. Student: Kateřina Vávrová Title of Thesis: Dissolution testing of tablets containing theophylline and mixtures of two types of calcium hydrogen phosphates and microcrystalline cellulose The aim of this thesis was the dissolution testing of tablets containing theophylline, the mixture of two dicalcium phosphate types and microcrystalline cellulose. The influence of tablet composition on the dissolution profiles was evaluated. The tablets were prepared from the mixtures containing microcrystalline cellulose, dicalcium phosphate anhydrous and dihydrate. These substances were used as fillers. Prepared mixtures contained theophylline as a model active ingredient and magnesium stearate as lubricant. Afterwards, the dissolution tests were done. For these tests, the basket method was utilized. As a dissolution medium the 0,1M hydrochloric acid solution was used. From the results of this experiment we concluded that we can influence the total amount of released theophylline and the speed of its release by the different ratio of microcrystalline cellulose and one of dicalcium phosphate types. The fastest theophylline dissolution was in tablets with high...

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See also: similar author names
1 Vavrová, Katarína
15 VÁVROVÁ, Kateřina
2 Vávrová, Karolína
2 Vávrová, Katka
4 Vávrová, Klára
1 Vávrová, Květa
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