National Repository of Grey Literature 5 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Trafficking of purinergic P2X receptor in eukaryotic cell
Pražák, Šimon ; Tvrdoňová, Vendula (advisor) ; Kolář, David (referee)
Purinergic receptors are membrane ion channels activated by extracellular ATP. In vertebrates, seven genes encoding P2X subunits was found. These subunits are designated as P2X1 - 7. Every P2X receptor subunit consists of two transmembrane domains, extracellular domain and intracellular N- and C- termini. P2X receptors fold to homo- or heterotrimers. P2X receptors have a wide distribution in the organism, functional receptors are found in neurons, glial cells, muscle cells and also in nonexcitable tissues as epithelial, endothelial, and in hemopoietic tissue. Purinergic signalling plays an important role in pain transmission, CNS injury and immune processes. P2X receptors are synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum and are transported to the plasma membrane after post-translational modifications in the Golgi apparatus. The distribution and transport of P2X receptors is subunit specific and dependent on the cell type in which they are expressed. P2X receptors can be divided into three groups according to the way they are moved in the cell, which differ in transport speed, plasma membrane accumulation rate and rate of internalization.
Polydendrocytes and their role in CNS
Suchá, Petra ; Anděrová, Miroslava (advisor) ; Tvrdoňová, Vendula (referee)
Polydendrocytes (NG2+ cells) are recently discovered glial cells in central nervous system (CNS) distinct from neurons, oligodendrocytes, astrocytes and microglia. Polydendrocytes could be identified mainly by the expression of the proteoglycan NG2 and platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha. They could be found in grey and white matter and represent the largest proliferating cell population in adult CNS. It is accepted that a subpopulation of polydendrocytes gives rise to oligodendrocytes not only in development, but also in adult CNS and after demyelination. A subpopulation gives rise also to protoplasmic astrocytes in embryonic development. In in vitro studies was observed that neurons and astrocytes may arise from polydendrocytes. Electrophysiological studies revealed that polydendrocytes form synapses with neurons and that their rate of proliferation could be controlled this way. Polydendrocytes are very important in study of remyelination after ischemia and demyelinating diseases, as they might serve as source of new oligodendrocytes or possibly of another glial cells. This thesis summaries general knowledge about polydendrocytes. Initially, I focus on their immunohistochemical markers and morphology. Next, I summarise findings about their development and fate in both embryonic and adult CNS. A...
Role of variable chains at the interface between subunits in forming ATP-binding pocket and function of P2X4 receptor
Tvrdoňová, Vendula ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee) ; Vlachová, Viktorie (referee)
7 ABSTRACT Crystallization of the zebrafish P2X4 receptor in both open and closed states revealed conformational differences in the ectodomain structures, including the dorsal fin and left flipper domains. The role of these domains in forming of ATP-binding pocket and receptor function was investigated by using alanine scanning mutagenesis of the R203- L214 (dorsal fin) and the D280-N293 (left flipper) sequences of the rat P2X4 receptor and by examination of the responsiveness to ATP and orthosteric analog agonists 2- (methylthio)adenosine 5'-triphosphate, adenosine 5'-(γ-thio)triphosphate, 2'(3'-O-(4- benzoylbenzoyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate, and α,β-methyleneadenosine 5'- triphosphate. ATP potency/efficacy was reduced in 15 out of 26 alanine mutants. The R203A, N204A, and N293A mutants were essentially non-functional, but receptor function was restored by ivermectin, an allosteric modulator. The I205A, T210A, L214A, P290A, G291A, and Y292A mutants exhibited significant changes in the responsiveness to orthosteric analog agonists. In contrast, the responsiveness of L206A, N208A, D280A, T281A, R282A, and H286A mutants to analog agonists was comparable to that of the wild type receptor. These experiments, together with homology modeling, indicate that residues of the first group located in the upper part of...
Contribution of ten ectodomain cysteine residues to function of ATP-gated P2X4 receptor
Tvrdoňová, Vendula ; Teisinger, Jan (referee) ; Zemková, Hana (advisor)
Extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), released from damaged cells or coreleased as a cotransmitter from synaptic vesicles, acts on its plasma membrane receptors termed purinergic. Purinergic P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels. To date seven P2X isoforms designated P2X1-7 have been cloned that are organized as trimeric homomers or heteromers. All P2X subunits share a similar structure consisting of a large extracellular loop, two transmembrane domains and intracellular N- and C- termini. An additional structural feature is conserved aminoacids, these include ten conserved cysteine residues in the extracellular loop. All ectodomain cysteines form disulfide bonds which are organized in two areas: three disulfide bridges are localized in the N-termini half and two in the C-termini half at P2X receptor. ATP binding pocket is apparently localized between two neighbouring subunits. The aim of this Diploma Thesis was to examine the relevance of ectodomain cysteine residue and/or disulfide bonds for the expression, function and ATP binding properties of the P2X receptor. All ten, one by one, ectodomain cysteines were substituted by alanines and ATP-induced currents was recorded in HEK293 cells expressing wild-type P2X4 receptor and its mutants. Low responsible or nonfunctional mutants...

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