National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Gradual Molecular Changes in Primary Porcine Cells Expressing Mutated Huntingtin
Šmatlíková, Petra ; Motlík, Jan (advisor) ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (referee) ; Reiniš, Milan (referee)
Huntington's disease (HD) is inherited fatal disorder caused by CAG triplet expansions in the huntingtin gene resulting in the expression of mutated huntingtin protein (mtHtt). The main symptoms of HD are neurodegeneration, osteoporosis, testicular degeneration, loss of muscle tissue and heart muscle malfunction, weight loss, metabolic changes, and sleeping disturbances. Since huntingtin protein (Htt) has a role in several biological processes, many molecular mechanisms, like oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA-damage, and others, are affected by mtHtt. However, its exact pathogenic mechanisms in HD are still not well understood. Transgenic minipig model of HD (TgHD) serves an opportunity to isolate unlimited number of primary cells and unlike primary cells obtained from HD patients, often in the late stages of the disease, the TgHD minipig model allows to monitor molecular changes occurring gradually with age and progression of the disease. Thus, TgHD minipig model and primary cells isolated from it play an important role in investigating and understanding the underlying mechanistic cause of HD. We focused on molecular and cellular changes in primary cells isolated from TgHD minipigs and their wild type (WT) controls at different ages (24, 36, and 48 months). In mesenchymal stem cells...
Interaction of transmembrane proteins ASCT1 and ASCT2 with retroviral envelope glycoproteins
Trávníček, Martin ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Mělková, Zora (referee)
Transmembrane proteins ASCT1 and ASCT2 are ubiquitous neutral amino acid transporters. Apart from their transporter function in metabolically active cells, they also serve as receptors for a wide group of retroviruses. All retroviruses recognizing the transmembrane receptor ASCT2/ASCT1 share a similar env gene, encoding the envelope glycoprotein. Syncytin-1 is the envelope glycoprotein, encoded by human endogenous retrovirus type W, produced in placental cytotrophoblasts of primates, including human. Interaction of receptor binding domain of Syncytin-1 and specific extracellular region of ASCT2 is responsible for fusion of neighbouring cells and formation of multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast. The importance of syncytiotrophoblast lies in higher efficiency of feto-maternal exchange of nutrients and simultaneously in modulation of immune response of mother towards fetus. Defect in syncytiotrophoblast differentiation often leads to complications during pregnancy and impairs the proper development of embryo. Characterization of protein domains responsible for the interaction between Syncytin-1 and its receptors is important to uncover genetic causes of these pathologies. Furthermore, understanding the interaction helps us to clarify the mechanism of cell entry and explains the molecular basis of host...
Changes of the intracellular redox state during virus infections
Kompas, Maroš ; Mělková, Zora (advisor) ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (referee)
Viruses are infectious agens, which cause disruption of a host cellular redox homeostasis. This effect is mediated by cellular defense machinery or via viral gene products. In order to restore cellular redox enviroment, activation of cellular adaptive response takes place. That is mediated by transcription factor Nrf2, which leads to upregulation of gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Under suboptimal redox condition, or by detecting foreign nucleic acid, redox sensitive transcription factor Nf-κB is also being activated, what leads to expresion of proteins mediating cellular imunne responses. It is important to remember that these proteins might show malignant effects to surrounding tissues during long term inflammations. With respect to that, viruses have evolved mechanisms, through which they are able to overcome or hijack these pathways, in order to propagate the infection. Key words: intracellular redox state, ROS, RNS, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzymes, regulation of gene expression, virus infections
Human endogenous retrovirus ERVWE1: transcriptional activation and modifications of promoter DNA methylation
Dobšová, Martina ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Španielová, Hana (referee)
Endogenous retrovirus ERVWE1 is an integral part of the human genome. In the course of evolution, a protein encoded by the env gene of this retrovirus - Syncytin-1 - has gained unique function in human development. It mediates cell-to-cell fusion of placental cytotrophoblasts. Receptor that binds to Syncytin-1 is expressed in different cell types. Syncytin-1-mediated fusion is essential in placenta, but it can cause disruption of tissue integrity in other cell types. ERVWE1 expression is regulated by promoter DNA methylation, transcription factor GCM1 and efficient mRNA splicing. This thesis concerns the ERVWE1 expression and its regulation in non-placental tissues. It was found out that the moderate GCM1 overexpression was not sufficient to induce Syncytin-1 expression. Neither treatment with DNA demethylation agent 5-azacytidine nor with Syncytin-1 activator forskolin was able to manage Syncytin-1 expression. This thesis extends previous findings concerning high syncytin-1 expression in seminomas. In same tissues, there was found elevated TET1 expression on mRNA level in comparison with controls. The presence of the TET1 demethylation enzyme can influence ERVWE1 promoter DNA methylation. Previously unreported splicing variant of TET1 has been found during the construction of human TET1 expression...
Epigenetic regulation of retroviruses.
Dobšová, Martina ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (advisor) ; Drda Morávková, Alena (referee)
The human genome is the site of integration of the retrovirus HIV-1, ERVWE1 (syncytin-1) is its stable part. Thus as an integral part of the genome, they are under influence of important genome based epigenetics regulations, such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation. Promoter DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation leads to establishment and maintenance of latent state of the HIV-1 virus and formation of the latent reservoir in the CD4+ memory T-cells. This process leads to severe problems during HIV-1 infection treatment by antiretroviral therapy (HAART), as the HIV-1 latent reservoir remains unaffected. Moreover DNA hypermethylation in the promoter of syncytin-1 directs its transcriptional silencing, which is important in tissue specific regulation of this fusogenic protein. In physiological conditions syncytin-1 expression is observed only in placental cells, where the DNA methylation of promoter is decreased. Higher expression level of syncytin-1 was also observed in several other tissues, such as testes, where it is tightly coupled with germ-cells tumors and syncytin-1 promoter hypomethylation. In conclusion, epigenetic regulation of retroviruses by DNA methylation and chromatin modifications highly influence regulation of their expression. Presented bachelor thesis...
Recombinant vaccinia virus for cancer therapy, the analysis of biological and biochemical features.
Žůrková, Kamila ; Němečková, Šárka (advisor) ; Forstová, Jitka (referee) ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (referee)
151 8 SUMMARY Recombinant vaccinia virus has been used for elicitation of the immune response against expressed heterologous proteins which has led to protection of the host organisms against the agents producing that antigen (viruses, cancer cells). In our laboratory, we designed and evaluated several vaccines against cancer caused by human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16). Vaccinia viruses derived from replication competent strain P13 or attenuated MVA were used for construction of recombinant viruses expressing HPV16-E7 in highly immunogenic fusion construct SigE7LAMP. Recombinant viruses were used both in prophylactic and therapeutic settings in mouse tumor models using TC-1 or TC-1/A9 cells. The genes encoding stimulatory cytokines GM-CSF or Flt3 ligand were inserted into the above viruses to support the immune system and to potentiate the anticancer response. Tumor microenvironment was modified using the recombinant viruses expressing both the E7 gene and soluble receptor for TGF-β which should decrease the inhibition of immune system caused by tumor TGF-β cytokine and elicit the response against tumor cells. Intratumoral or intraperitoneal administration of viruses enhanced anticancer response in mice, the viruses expressing Flt3 ligand induced the proliferation of E7- specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes....
Regulation of alternative splicing
Dušková, Eva ; Staněk, David (advisor) ; Trejbalová, Kateřina (referee)
Alternative splicing is an important cellular mechanism. It allows to produce multiple protein isoforms from a limited number of genes. Regulation of alternative splicing involves cis-acting elements on pre-mRNA and trans-acting splicing factors (SR and hnRNP proteins). Because splicing occurs co-transcriptionaly, chromatin structure appears to have a role in the regulation of alternative splicing. We have studied the effect of histone acetylation on alternative splicing. We have prepared splicing reporter for alternative EDB exon, which is part of the fibronectin gene. We have shown, that the inhibition of histone deacetylases affects splicing pattern of EDB exon from the reporter in the same way as the splicing of the endogenous EDB exon. Furthermore, we have shown, that the structure of the promoter affects splicing of alternative EDB exon from splicing reporter. Currently we have found out, that the structure of the promoter influences the degree of histone H4 acetylation. Inclusion of alternative EDB exon in mRNA was inversely proportional to histon acetylation on the reporter. This work might explain why various promoters have different splicing patterns of alternative exons.

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1 Trejbalová, Katarína
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