National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The significance of ovarian cancer cell chemosensitivity testing.
Řezáč, Adam ; Tošner, Jindřich (advisor) ; Novotný, Zdeněk (referee) ; Chovanec, Josef (referee)
Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancies. Most ovarian carcinomas are diagnosed in an advanced stage. Surgical treatment promotes a high response rate combined with chemotherapy. However, two-thirds of patients experience a relapse, followed by a development of chemoresistance, and, subsequently, death. The biological diversity of individual types of ovarian carcinoma is so varied, that a single treatment regimen can not be considered as a fitting treatment for all patients. Various studies focus on the individualisation of cancer treatment. This study targets the in vitro sensitivity testing in ovarian carcinoma cells on cytostatics using the MTT test. We presume that this method could be utilised in clinical decision-making process. Between the years 2006 and 2010, we have acquired tumor tissue and malignant ascites from a total of 55 patients enrolled in our study and analyzed those samples in vitro for chemosensitivity / chemoresistance using the MTT test. The aim of this research work was to asses chemosensitivity of ovarian carcinoma cells and compare these results with clinical parameters. Carcinoma cells displayed in vitro chemosensitivity to cisplatin in 67% of patients. Tumor cells of 22% patients proved to be sensitive to carboplatin and 16% to paclitaxel....
The effort to minimize complications in ovulation induction with gonadotropins
Středa, Robert ; Tošner, Jindřich (advisor) ; Dostál, Jiří (referee) ; Huser, Martin (referee)
The effort to minimize risks of ovulation induction with gonadotropins The aim of this study was to evaluate three different starting doses of follitropin beta based on patients' response to clomiphene citrate treatment to assess the lowest effective dose for follicular development. In fact the determination of the appropriate gonadotropins' starting dose to achieve only mono-follicular development is the most important issue in ovulation induction. This is the main goal to minimize cycle's cancellation due to low or high ovarian response and to prevent multiple pregnancies or ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. The objective of the trial was to determine the effect of different follitropin beta dose (50, 75 and 100 IU daily) on follicular development, thickness of the endometrium, total consumption of gonadotropins per cycle etc. We evaluated 90 cycles with ovarian stimulation for 90 patients with unexplained infertility, mild male factor or anovulatory disorder. We prospectively divided patients into 50, 75 and 100 IU groups based on patients' response to clomiphene citrate treatment. We performed 85 intrauterine inseminations. We cancelled 5 cycles (1 cycle due to high ovarian response (1.1 %), 3 cycles due to low ovarian response, 1 cycle the other reason). We achieved 15 clinical pregnancies,...
Sexuality of patients after simple and radical hysterectomy for bening or malignant gynaecologic disease
Vrzáčková, Petra ; Sláma, Jiří (advisor) ; Tošner, Jindřich (referee) ; Kubíček, Vladimír (referee)
Background: Cervical carcinoma is frequently diagnosis of young, sexually active women. Radical hysterectomy, as a basic therapeutic modality of early stages of cervical cancer, has very positive oncogynaecologic results. On the opposite site it has it's significant morbidity including bladder and rectal dysfunctions, lymphedemas, and deterioration in patient's sexual life. Methods: Data of forty one patients undergoing radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer were used for analysis, as well as data of forty nine patients undergoing simple hysterectomy for benign gynacologic disease and fifty three healthy controls Participants filled out sexual function and quality of life questionnaires before surgery and three and six months postoperatively. Results: The most important finding was statistically significant worsening in objective arousal in cervical cancer patients (p = 0,041). Also decrease in libido and higher frequency of dyspareunia was registered. Patients undergoing simple hysterectomy showed decreasing trend in sexual dysfunctions, mainly in severe dyspareunia. Conclusions: Radical hysterectomy for cervical carcinoma has a risk of arousal disorder, libido decrease and worsening of dyspareunia. Psychosexual counselling decreases frequency of early postoperative sexual dysfunctions.
The role of neuroactive steroids in pregnancy and their importance in prenatal diagnosticsSteroidogenesis in the third trimester of pregnancy and mechanisms leading to the start of labor
Pašková, Andrea ; Pařízek, Antonín (advisor) ; Procházka, Martin (referee) ; Tošner, Jindřich (referee)
Steroid hormones act through two mechanisms. The first is the classical genomic level, which acts at a relatively slow pace from hours to days. The second non-genomic mechanism of steroid activity can influence cellular function during seconds or even milliseconds. During pregnancy both mechanisms take place. Steroid hormones that act non-genomically and influence neuronal excitability are called neuroactive steroids. The aim of this study was to measure the levels of steroid hormones and examine their relationship to the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy. The physiological importance of increased placental progesterone production, lowered production of 5B-pregnanone steroids and increased activity of steroid sulfotransferase with gestational age have been intensely discussed. On the basis of our results, we have proposed an alternative mechanism of maternal progesterone synthesis during pregnancy (progesterone, or the gestagen stabilizing activity of the myometrium = continuation of pregnancy). In contrast to previous results our observations indicate that gestagens arise from precursors in the fetus (from pregnenolone sulfate). This mechanism is closely connected with the distribution of placental oxido-reductase. Data from this study show an increasing trend in the conversion of...
Soluble form of the scavenger receptor for hemoglobin (sCD163) in pregnancies complicated by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes
Kacerovský, Marian ; Tošner, Jindřich (advisor) ; Calda, Pavel (referee) ; Procházka, Martin (referee)
Preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) is responsible for approximately 30% of all preterm deliveries. Histological chorioamnionitis (HCA) has been found in 50-80% of PPROM cases and is associated with higher rates of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome. The scavenger receptor for hemoglobin (CD163) is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed almost exclusively on monocytes and macrophages. Its main function is the binding of hemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes. CD163 also serves as a surface receptor that recognizes intact bacteria and triggers cytokine production function. Moreover, it participates in the late down-regulatory phase of both acute and chronic inflammation. The soluble form of CD163 (sCD163) most likely represents the extracellular domain of CD163, which can be shed from the surface and released into the body fluid. The main aim of this thesis was to investigate sCD163 in pregnancy complicated by PPROM and relationships with HCA and funisitis. The first specific aim was to determine amniotic fluid sCD163 levels in uncomplicated pregnancies. Amniotic fluid samples were taken from 31 women who underwent amniocentesis for genetic testing in the second trimester, as well as from 32 women at term, 21 of whom had and 11 of whom did not have uterine contractions. The sCD163 levels in...
Influence of contraceptives and hormonal substitution therapy on the receptors of sex steroid hormones
Krasulová, Hana ; Tošner, Jindřich (referee) ; Hochmann, Jiří (advisor)
The thesis deals with questions about levels of estrogen and progesteron receptors (ER and PR) in normal breast tissue and in tumorous tissue and explains their changes. The aim of our effort was to find the publications which deal with possibilities of false positivity or negativity in a breast cancer and clarify the time period after which we can expect relevant results of the receptor levels after contraception therapy or hormonal substitution therapy and which concentration of hormones we can expect in serum. First we listed contraception therapy and hormonal therapy. We focused on physiological concentrations of estradiol and progesterone in serum and their potential affection by contraception and hormonal substitution therapy. We found that most of contraceptives contain now such dose of ethinylestradiol to reach such concentration in the serum which are nearly physiological. In postmenopauzal women the estradiol levels decreases in comparison with premenopausal women. The doses of ethinylestradiol during substitution therapy are essentially higher than during contraception therapy. Subsequently we searched for the releationship between levels of ER and PR and their potential affection by contraception or hormonal substituonal therapy. As the Czech literature does not include this questions -...
Mucocutaneous candidiasis and women's sexual hormones
Košťálová, Marie ; Tošner, Jindřich (advisor) ; Kudela, Milan (referee) ; Mencl, Karel (referee)
The aim of this work was to study relationship between mucocutaneous candidiasis (MCC) and women's sexual hormones. This problem is usually solved by dermatologists, gynaecologists and mycologists separately. Our approach is original, because it is primarily based on skin and/or cutaneous appendagies affection and searches for possible coincidence or other relation in vulvovaginal region. We examined 81 women in our study and divided them into two groups according to hormone-level investigation (women in fertile and perimenopausal period, women in postmenopausal period). We also developed "Candida" questionnaire for further anamnestic data correlation. The relationship between MCC and women's sexual hormones was studied both, in vivo and in vitro. We found C. albicans in vagina in both studied groups most frequently at the time of cutaneous candidiasis. In postmenopausal period the incidence of vaginal C. albicans was significantly lower (significantly lower levels of E2, PG). The cultivation identity between skin and vulvovaginal region was more frequent in fertile and perimenopausal period than in postmenopausal one, too. Predominantely concerned C. albicans again, the conformity was considerable in women with established ovulation (significantly higher levels of PG). In presence of C. albicans in...

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5 Tošner, Jiří
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