National Repository of Grey Literature 79 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Development of modal verb "shall" in legal English
Kirakosyanová, Natali ; Tichý, Ondřej (advisor) ; Čermák, Jan (referee)
and key words This BA thesis focuses on examining the development of the use of the modal verb SHALL in legal documents in the English language. The modal verb SHALL still has its place in legal English and, as the manuals indicate, it can point to the precision of legal language. However, ambiguity is a rather undesirable phenomenon in legal language, and due to the growing number of legal documents and drafters, the meanings of modal verbs expanded over time, reducing the level of precision and opening the door to ambiguity. The BA thesis aims to analyse the development of the use of SHALL in court decisions in given time periods, further classify the samples based on semantics, as described by dictionaries of legal English, and point out the gradual growth in the use of certain meanings of the modal verb SHALL, possibly causing ambiguity in legal documents. To compare the development, and especially the frequency of use, the same method is used within the common language, which is analysed using non-legal corpora. Keywords: modal verbs, modality, shall, legal English, language change
Potential Radioactive Hot Spots Induced by Radiation Accident Being Underway of Atypical Low Wind Meteorological Episodes
Pecha, Petr ; Tichý, Ondřej ; Pechová, E.
Hypothetical radioactivity release with potentially high variability of the source strength is examined. The interactions of the radioactive cloud with surface and atmospheric precipitation are studied and possible adverse consequences on the environment are estimated. The worst-case scenario is devised in two stages starting with a calm meteorological situation succeeded by wind. At the first stage, the discharges of radionuclides into the motionless ambient atmosphere are assumed. During several hours of this calm meteorological situation, a relatively significant level of radioactivity can be accumulated around the source. At the second stage, the calm is assumed to terminate and convective movement of the air immediately starts. The pack of accumulated radioactivity in the form of multiple Gaussian puffs is drifted by wind and pollution is disseminated over the terrain. The results demonstrate the significant transport of radioactivity even behind the protective zone of a nuclear facility (up to between 15 and 20 km). In the case of rain, the aerosols are heavily washed out and dangerous hot spots of the deposited radioactivity can surprisingly emerge even far from the original source of the pollution.
Relationships between Old Norse adjectival borrowings and their Old English counterparts in Middle English
Müllerová, Světlana ; Čermák, Jan (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
CHARLES UNIVERSITY - FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND ELT METHODOLOGY Relationships between the borrowed Old Norse adjectives in English and their Old English counterparts MA THESIS Supervisor: prof. PhDr. Jan Čermák, CSc. Author: Světlana Müllerová Abstract: The aim of this MA thesis is to examine the relationship between six word pairs, each comprising an Old Norse adjectival borrowing in Middle English and its Old English counterpart along with its Middle English reflex for further reference. The inquiry into their relationship involves an analysis of: their (i) formal aspects, (ii) syntactic properties, (iii) semantic fields and (iv) external factors possibly contributing to their obsolescence or survival, such as the restriction to certain text types or geographic localization, as suggested by the individual linguistic profiles in the Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English and Linguistic Atlas of Late Mediaeval English. The description of individual semantic fields of the given words is based on their semantic classification within the Historical Thesaurus of English. This analysis is based on the occurrences of the individual words as taken from the dictionaries Middle English Dictionary and Dictionary of Old English, and related corpora Dictionary of Old English Corpus and...
Evidence of Great Vowel Shift in English Poetry of the Period
Bartošová, Jana ; Tichý, Ondřej (advisor) ; Čermák, Jan (referee)
This BA thesis is dealing with the Great Vowel Shift which occurred roughly between the fifteenth and eighteenth century in British English. Analysis in this thesis was carried out manually on a sample of selected poetry of the period. While obtaining examples affected by the Great Vowel Shift other changes occurring approximately around the same period as the Great Vowel Shift such as shortening were taken into account. In the analysis it was observed that the number of representations of individual shifts is very different from each other. One specific shift was encountered widely in the works of all selected poets while another shift was not encountered once. The results of the manual analysis were displayed in graphs which were then compared to the presumed chronology of the Great Vowel Shift. Key words: The Great Vowel Shift, rhyme, poetry, Old English, Middle English, Modern English
Lexical Replacements of Romance Origins in Middle English
Buchal, Kryštof ; Tichý, Ondřej (advisor) ; Čermák, Jan (referee)
and key words This BA thesis focuses on selected words of French origin adopted into English during the Middle English period. The theoretical part deals with the research carried out in the field of French borrowings in the Middle English period so far. The research part focuses on lexical borrowings that replaced their corresponding equivalents of Germanic origin. The words were chosen from the Oxford English Dictionary, which also provided the information on etymology, various orthographic forms, current usage frequency and classification into semantic fields. The classification was used to find corresponding equivalents of French or Germanic origin. The list of orthographic variants of the words was verified and complemented with the Middle English Dictionary. Next, a corpus including English prose and verse from the period between 1150 and 1500 was used to analyze the usage and changes in the usage frequency of the replacements and the replaced words throughout this period. Key words: lexical replacements, French borrowings, Romance borrowings, Middle English
Quantum mechanical study of the electron hopingp rocesses of heterocyclic molecules.Simulation of absorption and emission spectra.
Tichý, Ondřej ; Burda, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Profant, Václav (referee)
This thesis is about computing lifetimes of excited states of molecules by using semiempirical methods in simulations of molecular dynamics. Pyrimidine nucleobases and three aza- derivatives were chosen as reference molecules. Simulations of molecular dynamics by program MNDO99 were performed with these molecules and static spectra were computed by programs Gaussian and Orca. All the examined molecules have femtosecond lifetimes of second excited states, pyrimidine nucleobases have also short lifetimes of first excited states in hundreds of femtoseconds. The computed first excited states of aza-derivatives have lifetimes in tens or hundreds of picoseconds and suggest that the higher stability of the states is related to the smaller number of amino groups attached to the ring.
Phrasal Combinations in English Swearing
Romanenko, Anton ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
The aim of this BA thesis is to describe and analyze multi-word combinations of the word fuck, including such compounds as fuck it up, fuck me off, fuck around, etc. The thesis seeks to describe its colloqations, types of complementation, and meaning with regards to semantic and syntactic restrictions. While most dictionaries describe fuck in terms of abstract semantic structures, this thesis will analyze examples from the British National Corpus of spoken English. The theoretical part will discuss briefly the recent development observed in the uses of the word as well as socio- linguistic aspects of its use, as described in secondary literature. This part will also provide a list of possible combinations of fuck and their meaning (according to the Oxford English Dictionary) and discuss the possible terminological approaches to the phraseological description of the word and its combinations. In the methodological part, the procedure of working with the data and the British National Corpus is described. The analytical part descibes the combinations discovered in the BNC from the point of view of their meaning and the degree of their grammatical variability. Key words: swearing, bad language, phrasal verbs, formulaic language, idiomaticity
Adjectives of positive evaluation in present-day spoken British English
Krajcsovicsová, Vladimíra ; Malá, Markéta (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
The present MA thesis studies adjectives of positive evaluation in present-day spoken British English. Other means of expressing subjective stance (e.g. intensifiers) were repeatedly described as undergoing constant change. However, variation in evaluative adjectives has received little quantitative attention so far (perhaps with the exception of Tagliamonte & Pabst, 2020). Our material consists of two corpora of informal spoken British English: Spoken BNC2014 and the spoken, demographically sampled section of the original BNC (1994). The starting point for the analysis is a frequency list of adjectives, from which we select adjectives with evaluative potential which differ significantly in frequency across the two corpora. Three adjectives: amazing, awesome and cool, are described in greater detail. The use of evaluative adjectives is described from several perspectives. We focus on syntactic functions of the adjectives, their co-occurrence with intensifiers and their collocations. From a sociolinguistic point of view, we describe the use of the adjectives with respect to the age and gender of the speakers. The analysis showed that adjectives of positive evaluation are an unstable category, and the change in adjectival use was reflected in its distribution. At the same time, we note changes in...
The use of the comma in the multiple sentence in English: an analysis of the English conventions and style specifics of the comma in academic prose
Krejčová, Irena ; Brůhová, Gabriela (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
The present thesis analyses the use of the clausal comma in academic prose. The aim of this diploma thesis is to examine the hypothesis of relative inconsistency in the use of the comma in a multiple sentence formed by a native speaker of English. In Modern English, the descriptive approach prevails and therefore it is assumed that the comma usage varies. The factors that affect or, by interacting with other factors, contribute to the inclusion or the omission of the comma in a sentence are the length of the clause in both compound and complex sentences, the position of the clause in a sentence as well as the syntactic function of the adverbial clause in a complex sentence. The coordinate clauses are studied in terms of the presence and absence of the subject in the second conjoined clause and the semantic tightness of both clauses. Based on an analysis of 200 two-clause sentences (both compound sentences and complex sentences comprised of the matrix clause and an adverbial clause) excerpted from linguistic articles written by native speakers of English, the thesis categorises the sentences according to the dependency relation between the clauses, evaluates the frequency of the inclusion of the comma against its omission, and describes the potential factors that influenced the comma usage. The...
Swearing in English: Language Attitudes in L1 and L2 Speakers
Salačová, Eva ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
Researching language taboo is still considered taboo - as such, little research is done into topic. Even less is known about swearing in a second language. The goal of this thesis is to discover whether native and non-native speakers of English perceive swearing in English differently. This was done by the distribution of an anonymous online questionnaire, which was filled out by 43 native and 178 non-native speakers. These were all university students in Prague. The questions belonged into four thematic parts: metadata; replication of previous research concerning the self-reported behaviour of respondents Dewaele (2017) and offensiveness ratings Beers Fägersten (2007); furthermore general language attitudes; and finally respondents' opinions regarding the inclusion of swearing in curriculums for Foreign Language Teaching. Based on the results, we have come to the conclusion that the varying results of the two groups can have adverse consequences for non-native speakers, because they could lead to their misuse of swearing in English. This may reflect negatively in various parts of their lives. Because of this, and the support for this idea among the respondents themselves, the thesis argues for the inclusion of swearing in FLT. key words: swearing, language taboo, language attitude, first language,...

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