National Repository of Grey Literature 42 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Effect of inflammation on local expression of 11β-HSD1
Kvapilová, Pavlína ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Inflammation is first-line host defense mechanism of organism that aims to remove unwanted pathogens, repair damaged tissue and restore homeostasis. Glucocorticoids belong to effective immune response regulators. Their availibility in the tissue is due to several factors, including local metabolism in the cell that provide 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. We know two isoforms 11HSD1 and 11HSD2. 11HSD1 locally in the cell catalyzes the conversion of the inactive glucocorticoid molecule to active, and thus appears to be a significant player in regulating the inflammatory response. The aim of this work was to analyze gene expression of 11HSD1 together with expression of cytokines in specific microanatomical compartments of the immune system involved in immune response to experimental DSS colitis. Keywords Metabolism of glucocorticoids; Cytokine microenvironment; Lymphoid organs; Colon; Dextran-sodium-sulfate colitis
EEG correlates of neurodegenerative disorders
Schlezingerová, Nicol ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Kelemen, Eduard (referee)
Due to the aging of the population, there is an increasing incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In clinical practice there is a need to for a cheap and noninvasive method for screening and early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. To this end, markers of disease progression and prognosis must be determined. EEG correlates provide information that can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Individual diseases have their specific EEG abnormalities that are closely related to different stages of the disease. Individual illnesses - Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease have their specific changes in the basic rhythms of the brain that correlate with motor and cognitive changes. This work focuses on the quantitative (qEEG) correlates of the above-mentioned diseases. Key words: brain, neural activity, EEG, quantitative EEG analysis, biomarker, connectivity, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease.
Genetic risk factors of Alzheimer's disease
Foltýnová, Alice ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Čechová, Kateřina (referee)
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly affects the elderly population and since our lifespan increases, Alzheimer's disease is one of the most serious diseases of the 21st century. There are two types of Alzheimer's disease, namely familial (FAD) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) that differ in the age of onset and contribution of the genetic factors - the familial form is genetically predisposed whereas the genes involved in the sporadic form are perceived as risk factors. However, their clinical manifestation is similar. Alzheimer's disease causes dementia that is characterized by memory loss and a steady decline in the early stages. Unfortunately, there are still many discrepancies regarding Alzheimer's disease and there are multiple approaches in research concerning Alzheimer's disease. One of the possible approaches in finding new mechanisms involved in Alzheimer's disease is in genetics - we can findnew genetic loci involved in this disease and investigate new mechanisms via studying newly identified genes. Key words: sporadic form of AD, familiar form of AD, beta amyloid, apolipoprotein E, amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, genome wide association study
Coding of stable and moving objects in the brain
Lobellová, Veronika ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Spatial navigation in an environment is essential for one's survival. Animals need to monitor location of self and location of other animate or inanimate objects. Navigation is a hippocampus dependent process supported by activity of place cells. Object location in space is thought to be coded as a point of interest on cognitive map formed by place cells. Place cells change their firing fields, process known as remapping, when a new object is introduced into the environment. However we do not yet know how location of moving objects such as predators or other animals is presented on the cognitive map. This work summarizes findings of chosen studies concerning the role of hippocampus and place cells in spatial coding of stable and moving objects.
Neuronal mechanisms of consolidation of memories for behavioral episodes in sleep
Petránová, Erika ; Kelemen, Eduard (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Memory is an important ability of an individual allowing efficient operations with information acquired during lifetime. Memory is a dynamic process consisting of different phases such as encoding, consolidation and repeated retrieval of the memory. Received information from surrounding environment travels to the short-term storage, from which, in certain amount of time after re-evaluation of its relevance, it is decided about its transport to structures designated for long-term storing. The mechanism used for this transformation is referred to as consolidation. Consolidation occurs on systematic and synaptic level. Positive strengthening effect on memories coded right before sleep has been observed many years ago. The role of sleep in the consolidation of memory representation is still unknown, though there are multiple hypotheses that stress different points of view on the consolidation process. In the last few decades sleep has been given an active role in this process. An interesting problem regarding sleep consolidation is not only the mechanism, but also the preference of a specific type of memory that is being consolidated during sleep. During examination of consolidation of declarative memory, we can observe, in case of episodic memory, an improvement of mainly space-time association...
Interval Timing and Emotional Modulation
Šafránková, Kristýna ; Nekovářová, Tereza (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
This bachelor thesis focuses on time perception, a field of study pursued extensively by psy- chologists, neuroscientists, and cognitive linguistic researchers. More specifically, this paper will examine the issue of "interval timing" (i.e. an individual's ability to perceive time intervals in seconds or minutes). Time perception is influenced by several factors, of which emotional modulation has been postulated as the most crucial. Examining the physiological mechanisms of emotional modulation and pacemaker-accumulator, the striatal model of time perception along with its role in emotional modulation form the contributions of this thesis. Key words: interval timing, dopamine, emotions, the striatal beat-frequency model
Cholinergic system as pharmacological target in Alzheimer's disease
Golianová, Nikoleta ; Jakubík, Jan (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder of CNS and very serious type of dementia. AD affects many elderly people and the numbers are increasing with every year. There are two forms of AD: familial (FAD) and sporadic (SAD) form. FAD is an early-onset disease with a genetic cause. SAD is more common, late-onset disease with the age and ε allele of apolipoprotein E as major risk factors. The most crucial symptom is memory disorder, followed by confusion, disorientation, depression and later on, serious psychical and motor-skill problems. These symptoms are as result of neuronal loss, plaques and tangles in the central nervous system (CNS). As for now, there are no efficient diagnostic or therapeutic approaches to stop the degeneration of brain. Inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase are currently the only approved treatments, that have proven to slow down the progress of AD. Other cholinergic drugs have been developed, but they have shown a lot of side effects, as they are targeting a large scale of receptors. The researchers are trying to find a modulator, that would target only specific receptors in the CNS, to avoid such side effects. Key words: acetylcholine, Alzheimer's disease, β-amyloid, cholinergic system, inhibitors of cholinesterase, muscarinic receptors, nicotinic receptors,...
Effect MTEP on immature rat behaviour.
Tichá, Kateřina ; Mareš, Pavel (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Metabotropic glutamate receptors represent prospective targets for anticonvulsant therapy of epilepsy. However there may be serious negative side effects. In this study the highly specific antagonist of mGluR5 was used - MTEP, [(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)ethynyl] pyridine, which was shown previously to have an anticonvulsant action. Our study was aimed at other possible effects, such as efficacy in motor skills, spontaneous behaviour, space learning and rate of anxiety. Animals, immature male Wistar rats (12, 18 and 25 days old), were pretreated with MTEP in two different doses - 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg, because MTEP demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in exactly such high doses. Animals were tested 15 min, 60 min and 24h (in elevated plus maze test only) after treatement. No negative effects were found in motor tests;, space learning in elevated plus maze was also not compromised. On the other hand, MTEP influenced frequency of some types of stereotypic behaviour in the open field test. MTEP exhibited anxiolytic-like effect in elevated plus maze in immature rats; this side effect has to be taken as a positive one. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

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