National Repository of Grey Literature 49 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The establishment of invariable behaviour of rats in novel one-trial trace association task (OTTAT)
Alexová, Daniela ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Animal episodic-like memory tasks represent important component of episodic memory research. However, currently available episodic-like memory tasks are not based on episodic-like memory or encompass important caveats. In our laboratory, we recently devised a novel one-trial trace association task (OTTAT) to examine one-time associations of temporally discontinuous stimuli. This thesis deals with the improvement of OTTAT protocol by rat strain and compartment divider ('doors') selection which optimally promote the establishment of invariable behaviour of rats in OTTAT. Moreover, the accuracy of one-trial associations is also assessed by determining specificity of "rapid escape" response to conditioned stimulus of given sound characteristics. In Experiment 1, rats (Sprague-Dawley (SD), n = 36; Wistar (WI), n = 17; Long-Evans (LE), n = 8) were habituated 15 min daily for 3 days with standard doors (9 x 11 cm opening) to modified light and dark apparatus. The number of transfers between compartments and values of time spent in dark compartment obtained from 3rd habituation session were evaluated as indicators of invariable behaviour of rats. We found WI rats spend significantly more time in dark compartment than LE (p = 0.002) and SD rats (p = 0.001) and have significantly fewer transfers than LE rats...
The role of m6A pathway in regulation of cognitive function in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and caloric restriction
Pohanová, Petra ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Stuchlík, Aleš (referee)
Reversible adenosine methylation (N6-methylation; m6A) at the RNA level was described in connection to the regulation of RNA fate. The N6-methyladenosine pathway is important for cognitive function and mechanisms related to memory, including the regulation of adult neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a decreased activity of the RNA-demethylase FTO is associated with improved cognitive function in rats. The RNA-demethylase FTO is a key regulator of the m6A pathway. In this study, we administered MO-I-500, a pharmacological inhibitor of FTO in TgF344-AD transgenic rats, which resulted in an improvement of spatial cognition. We further investigated the cognitive enhancement induced by a caloric restriction as a possible compensatory mechanism of cognitive disorders and its effect on the proteins regulating the N6-methyladenosine pathway. Long-term caloric restriction ameliorated cognitive functions and led to changes in the expression of the major proteins controlling the m6A pathway (FTO, METTL3) which are consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis. Although we do not know the exact mechanism of action, these findings support the hypothesis that m6A pathway regulators, such as the FTO demethylase, may be a promising molecular target for...
The role of the m6A pathway in the regulation of brain ontogenesis in the rat
Tabáková, Petra ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Holzerová, Kristýna (referee)
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most ubiquitous post-transcriptional RNA modification and has an important role in determining the fate of mRNA transcripts. Among the key proteins of the m6A pathway are methyltransferases (METTL family enzymes), demethylases (FTO, ALKBH family enzymes), and m6A binding proteins (e.g., YTHDF family) which recognize RNA sequences depending on the amount and localization of m6A in target transcripts and subsequently influence the fate of mRNA transcripts. The role of methyltransferases and demethylases is to provide a dynamic balance of m6A levels and possibly to convey mechanisms of specificity for these so-called epitranscriptomic marks, which are not yet fully understood. The main objective of this work was to determine the relative changes in the expression of key m6A pathway proteins during early postnatal development and adulthood in the rat brain. We found that the level of expression of key m6A pathway proteins decreases from birth to adulthood, with the exception of a transient increase between postnatal days 10 and 18. During this period, we also found significant changes in the expression of respiratory chain complexes. However, further research is needed to provide evidence of a mechanistic link between the m6A pathway and brain energy homeostasis during...
Application of new methods and technologies in mice models of autism research
Nováková, Rozálie ; Kubik-Zahorodna, Agnieszka (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Autism Spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting around 2 % of the world's population. The underlying pathology is still unknown, but it seems that this disorder might be caused by a complex combination of genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors. ASD individuals suffer not only from repetitive behavior, abnormal social behavior and impaired communication but also from many comorbid disorders. ASD mouse models offer a deeper insight into the pathology of ASD, possibly leading to the development of treatments, or even a cure. Since there are over a thousand risk-genes for ASD, and therefore many ASD mouse models, there is an increased pressure to develop new, effective, and more automatized behavioral assays. Two examples of this would be Intellicage and Digitally Ventilated Cage (DVC), where an explicit advantage to these systems is that they can both function as a home cage. Intellicage is a fully-automized home cage designed for the high-throughput and long-term investigation of spontaneous behavior and cognitive abilities of mice, and DVC, a standard IVC cage continuously measuring a mouse's activity. These may become useful tools not only for animal models of Autism Spectrum Disorder, but all studies involving behavioral assays.
EEG correlates of egocentric and allocentric distance estimates in virtual environment in humans
Kalinová, Jana ; Vlček, Kamil (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Cognitive processes associated with spatial orientation can use different reference frames: egocentric, centered on observer and allocentric, centered on objects in the environment. In this thesis, we use EEG to investigate the dynamics of brain processes accompanying spatial orientation based on these reference frames. Participants were instructed to estimate distances between objects or themselves and objects located in a virtual circular arena; this task was presented in both 2D and 3D displays. Task-related EEG changes were analyzed using a time-frequency analysis and event-related potential analysis of 128-channel EEG recordings. Through time-frequency analysis we found significant power differences in delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands amongst the control, egocentric and allocentric testing conditions. We noted a decrease in alpha power in occipital and parietal regions, while a significantly stronger decrease was observed for the allocentric condition compared to both egocentric and control conditions. A similar pattern was also detectable for the beta band. We also report an increase in theta and delta power in temporal, fronto-temporal and lateral frontal regions that was significantly stronger for the egocentric condition compared to control and, in some electrodes, even...
New insights on tau protein aggregation and the spreading of tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease
Pribiš, Matej ; Růžička, Jiří (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
More than 100 years have passed since the original description of a "peculiar" disease of cerebral cortex by Dr. Alzheimer. Lots of discoveries on this disease and its cellular and molecular correlates has been done since then, the disease, however, up to this day resists most of the causal attempts of treatment. The major component of silver stained tangled bundles of fibrils that Alzheimer observed under his microscope has been identified as a microtubule associated protein tau and it has been shown to be a crucial part of many other neurodegenerative disorders, which were collectively named tauopathies. However, even after such a long time, the exact role of tau in neuronal physiology and pathology remains rather obscure. According to the latest research, it even seems that some of the widely accepted truths might require more closer observation and validation. The aim of this thesis is to sum up and clarify the important aspects of the mechanism of tau aggregation, the basic factors that influence it and its transcellular movement as a mechanism of pathology spreading. Keywords: aggregation, pathology spreading, tauopathy, Tau protein iii
Psychophysiological correlates of emotion and memory
Jindrová, Miroslava ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Vlček, Kamil (referee)
The first aim was to determine the baseline psychophysiological correlates in healthy subjects as a first necessary step towards the long-term goal of application the psychophysiological techniques in diagnostics mood and cognitive disorders. The second aim was to establish an easily applicable set of tests for evaluating emotional and memory processes by non-invasive psychophysiological methods. EEG, GSR, and eye-tracking data from 100 participants without any neurological or psychiatric disorders were obtained during watching affective pictures and performing memory tests. The spectral powers were computed for each 500 ms of the stimuli in theta, alpha, beta1, beta2 and beta3 bands in 12 areas of the brain. Lower alpha and higher beta3 power was related to higher emotional intensity. Negative emotions were distinguished in spatio-temporal changes of beta1 power and positive emotions showed higher beta3 power in right temporal region. Memory encoding showed higher alpha power. Lower theta and higher alpha power in central regions and overall increase of beta bands were observed during successful memory retrieval. A summary of spatio-temporal spectral correlates to emotional and memory processes was provided by this work. Key words: Electroencephalography, electrodermal activity, psychophysiology,...
Effect of inflammation on local expression of 11β-HSD1
Kvapilová, Pavlína ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Inflammation is first-line host defense mechanism of organism that aims to remove unwanted pathogens, repair damaged tissue and restore homeostasis. Glucocorticoids belong to effective immune response regulators. Their availibility in the tissue is due to several factors, including local metabolism in the cell that provide 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes. We know two isoforms 11HSD1 and 11HSD2. 11HSD1 locally in the cell catalyzes the conversion of the inactive glucocorticoid molecule to active, and thus appears to be a significant player in regulating the inflammatory response. The aim of this work was to analyze gene expression of 11HSD1 together with expression of cytokines in specific microanatomical compartments of the immune system involved in immune response to experimental DSS colitis. Keywords Metabolism of glucocorticoids; Cytokine microenvironment; Lymphoid organs; Colon; Dextran-sodium-sulfate colitis
EEG correlates of neurodegenerative disorders
Schlezingerová, Nicol ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Kelemen, Eduard (referee)
Due to the aging of the population, there is an increasing incidence of neurodegenerative diseases. In clinical practice there is a need to for a cheap and noninvasive method for screening and early diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders. To this end, markers of disease progression and prognosis must be determined. EEG correlates provide information that can be used in the diagnosis and prognosis of neurodegenerative disorders. Individual diseases have their specific EEG abnormalities that are closely related to different stages of the disease. Individual illnesses - Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease have their specific changes in the basic rhythms of the brain that correlate with motor and cognitive changes. This work focuses on the quantitative (qEEG) correlates of the above-mentioned diseases. Key words: brain, neural activity, EEG, quantitative EEG analysis, biomarker, connectivity, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease.
Genetic risk factors of Alzheimer's disease
Foltýnová, Alice ; Telenský, Petr (advisor) ; Čechová, Kateřina (referee)
Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that mostly affects the elderly population and since our lifespan increases, Alzheimer's disease is one of the most serious diseases of the 21st century. There are two types of Alzheimer's disease, namely familial (FAD) and sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) that differ in the age of onset and contribution of the genetic factors - the familial form is genetically predisposed whereas the genes involved in the sporadic form are perceived as risk factors. However, their clinical manifestation is similar. Alzheimer's disease causes dementia that is characterized by memory loss and a steady decline in the early stages. Unfortunately, there are still many discrepancies regarding Alzheimer's disease and there are multiple approaches in research concerning Alzheimer's disease. One of the possible approaches in finding new mechanisms involved in Alzheimer's disease is in genetics - we can findnew genetic loci involved in this disease and investigate new mechanisms via studying newly identified genes. Key words: sporadic form of AD, familiar form of AD, beta amyloid, apolipoprotein E, amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, genome wide association study

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