National Repository of Grey Literature 13 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Emerging cardiovascular risk markers in diagnostics and therapy
Tůmová, Eva ; Vrablík, Michal (advisor) ; Freiberger, Tomáš (referee) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries with an enormous influence on individual health and significant socioeconomic impact as well. The aim of most physicians in recent decades is to seek the best possible predicative risk factor (RF) (or combination of several RF) which could help to determine the individual risk of developing CVD. This risk stratification can be used to identify the high risk patients and treatment intensification or establishment of early preventive measures. Currently, several RF of atherosclerosis and CVD are commonly used to individualize health care. However, individuals with low levels of these RF suffer of CVD, therefore the effort to find as much as possible specific RF still persists. In recent years, the inflammatory markers, crucial in the atherosclerosis development, raise great expectation In our studies, we focused on investigating the levels of inflammatory parameters in specific groups of patients (obese children and patients with metabolic syndrome) and observed the effect of weight loss following lifestyle changes. Our main concern was lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), oxidized LDL particles (ox-LDL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The results demonstrated significantly...
The role of a diet in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases and evaluation of eating habits of patients with heart attack
Jakešová, Andrea ; Tůmová, Eva (advisor) ; Šišková, Ivana (referee)
This diploma thesis deals with the role of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The theoretical part describes basic knowledge about cardiovascular diseases, prevalence, risk factors and the importance of nutrition in their prevention and treatment. The theoretical part describes in detail the effect of intake of carbohydrates, fiber, describes the role of glycemic index of foods, fat intake and their chemical composition, minerals, alcohol and coffee. One part of the theoretical part also describes the role of nutrition in the treatment. The research part is devoted to the dietary habits of patients who have already had an acute myocardial infarction. The aim of the research is to find out whether patients follow current recommendations for the prevention and treatment of CVD, or how the actual diets of these patients differ from recommendations. The data were collected using a questionnaire filled in during interviews with selected patients. It was found out that patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction have insufficient knowledge to build a balanced diet, or that nutritional recommendations are consciously violated. Problematic is especially the choice of fats, the unbalanced composition of the diet, the frequent consumption of too fat and sweet...
New lightweight floors with secondary raw materials
Tůmová, Eva ; Bydžovský, Jiří (referee) ; Ďurica,, Tibor (referee) ; Kolář,, Karel (referee) ; Drochytka, Rostislav (advisor)
The thesis deals with the development of new type of lightweight floors based on secondary raw materials. In the introduction, the current knowledge in the field of lightweight building materials, especially screeds and lightweight porous concrete, is presented. The thesis describes brief history of production of aerated concrete and its development up to the present. Further, the thesis describes the procedure of design and testing of new lightweight materials for use in floors. The proposed recipe has been thoroughly tested and the best combination of components for use in lightweight porous concrete floor screed has been selected. The thesis also examines the microstructure of the material being developed. The main result of the dissertation is the developed product, which is already used in practice and is produced and sold on the market as part of the system of lightweight building materials.
Prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases
Hrdinová, Zuzana ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Tůmová, Eva (referee)
Preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is one of the main components of preventive medicine. This thesis deals with prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The theoretical part describes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, which is at the background of 90 % of CVD. The next chapters deal with the most common cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. There is described determination of cardiovascular risk and a nutritional prevention is included at the end of the theoretical part. A part of this work is a research carried out on 107 randomly selected individuals. The main objective was to find out the level of knowledge of this individuals about the possibilities of prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The survey was performed in a questionnaire survey, both in electronic and printed form. The survey revealed that the majority of respondents (87,9 %) correctly associate the CVD with an inappropriate lifestyle, only 12,1 % of respondents considered the most important factor in genetics. The negative influence of inappropriate meals and lack of physical activity prevails in the respondents' awareness. Most respondents also correctly stated that CVD accounts for almost 50 % of all deaths in the Czech Republic. An active interest in lifestyle, which is an integral part of preventive measures,...
Education effect on blood lipid levels in patients with dyslipidaemia
Kuncířová, Veronika ; Zlatohlávek, Lukáš (advisor) ; Tůmová, Eva (referee)
The bachelor thesis examines the influence of education and diet on patients with dyslipidemia. Another object was to explore the eating habits of patients and find out if they are interested in a healthy lifestyle. The theoretical part is based on knowledge from the academic literature. It explains the concept of dyslipidemia, its divisions and causes of disease and describes possible methods of treatment. The pieces of information for the practical part are obtained through questionnaires from patients who are treated in the Center for Preventive Cardiology, 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, 1st Medical Faculty of Charles University in Prague. Another source are laboratory tests of blood, which were taken before education and then again after a minimum interval of one month from the education. Values were processed by using graphs and tables. The results clearly showed us that after education and compliance with the recommended diet, values of blood lipids were improved. On three of the four monitored lipid parameters diet had a positive impact. Furthermore, it appears that the majority of patients with dyslipidemia has good eating habits. The last point that has been studied, was the patients' interest in a healthy lifestyle. It revealed insufficinet interest at the majority of the...
The effect of housing system on egg shell quality and egg internal quality
Vlčková, Jana ; Tůmová, Eva (advisor) ; Skřivanová, Eva (referee)
In the study 3 experiments were carried out. The objective of the first experiment was to evaluate performance of laying hens, quality of air in poultry house, and microbial contamination of the eggshell in laying hens kept under blue, green, red, and yellow light colour in enriched cages. The laying performance characteristics (hen-day egg production, mortality, and egg weight) were not affected by light colour. Similarly, microbial contamination of the air was not significantly different related to the light colour. There were significant interactions in eggshell contamination between cage floor and light colour in Escherichia coli and Enterococcus. The highest number of Escherichia coli was detected in eggs from hens housed in the middle floor given yellow light and the lowest values on the upper floor also under yellow light colour. Similar results were observed in Enterococcus. The results of our study indicate that the light colour has a minor effect on microbial contamination but the significant influence was in the floor position. The highest microbial egg contamination was found on eggs from the middle floor. In the second experiment, the effect of housing system (conventional cage, litter, aviary) and feed calcium content (3,0 and 3,5%) on laying performance characteristics, technological quality of eggs, microbial contamination of the eggshell and egg content during storage was evaluated. The significant interaction between housing system and feed calcium content was found in egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell percentage, eggshell weight, Haugh units and albumen index. The housing system affected egg production, feed intake, egg weight and some characteristics of eggshell quality. From characteristics of eggshell quality the feed calcium content affected only eggshell strength and eggshell percentage. The significant interaction between housing system and storage time was found in contamination of eggshell by total number of microorganisms. The housing system affected also contamination of the eggshell where higher number of Escherichia coli and total number of microorganisms were in eggs from litter. Higher penetration of all monitored species of microorganisms on the eggshell membranes was 2nd and 7th day of storage in the group with 3.5% of calcium in the feed mixture in eggs from the litter. This could be associated with lower quality of eggshell in this type of housing. In the experiment 3, the effect of different housing system (enriched cage, free range) on technological quality of eggs, microbial contamination of the eggshell, egg content and concentration of protein in albumen during storage was observed. The housing system affected all characteristics of eggshell quality with higher values in cage system. Higher number of pores in eggshell was found in free range. The important relationship between housing system and storage time was indicated in Haugh unit, albumen index, pH albumen and yolk index. The values for characteristics quality of albumen and yolk were better in eggs from cages. Their quality during storage decreased faster in alternative housing systems. There was detected interaction between housing system and storage time also in Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and total number of microorganisms. The highest microbial contamination in fresh eggs was found in free range. The number of microorganisms with storage time significantly decreased faster in eggs from cage system. The penetration of Escherichia coli and total number of microorganisms in albumen was lower in eggs from cage compared to free range. The significant effect of housing system was found in concentration of lysozyme in albumen with higher values in egg from free range. It is obvious that a better quality of the eggs is in the cage housing system. The eggs from this type of housing also remain during storage for longer time in better quality compared with alternative housing systems.
The evaluation of meat performance of turkeys
Smolík, Martin ; Tůmová, Eva (advisor) ; Chodová, Darina (referee)
The goal of thesis was to create a literature review that will evaluate the influence of genotype, sex and age on growth, carcass yield and composition of meat turkeys. Genotype is one of the most important factors for growth, which is reflected already in the prenatal stage and then continues in the postnatal stage. And at the age of 20 weeks, differencis between males and famale are 35% in temrs of males. Sex plays important, role brouse male turkeys have a significantly higher growth rate. Changing the speed growth also depends on age. Carcass yield moves in broiler turkeys between 76-83%, genotype affects carcass yield and greatly affects the weight of the breast and thighs. Sex determinate primarily weight of valuable parts. Carcase composition varies depending on age. Turkey meat is considered to be good quality with a high content of nutrients. Turkey breast contains 22.6% protein and only 1.7 fat. Effect of genotype on the composition of turkey meat is in the representation of protein and fat. Protein and fat content also depends on sex. Meat composition varies depending on age.
The effect of age and gender on performance and carcass parameters of nutrias
Bubeník, Tomáš ; Tůmová, Eva (advisor) ; Zdeněk, Zdeněk (referee)
In the thesis we aimed on data connected with slaughter analysis of the body, carcass yield, feed conversion and content of chemicals, including pH of thighs and loin. In the experiment, we used standard nutrias which have been weaned at the second month of age. There were 90 nutrias in the experiment. Nutrias were fed with complete feed mix - made by Kooperace Hrotovice created by CLUS in Prague utility model UV 24096, ad libitum. Nutrias were weighted every 28 days. At the age of 6, 7, and 8 months, 6 females and 6 males were chosen and slaughtered. Results were analysed by variation of analysis, ANOVA method and with age and sex interactions. We have used value P <= 0,05 as statistical significant difference. As a result, we have found out that males grew significantly (P <= 0,05) faster than females. The highest feed conversion was recorded at 4th month of the experiment. Influence of age on the weight of carcass without a head and organs was observed (P <= 0,029), carcass weight of males increased significantly (P <= 0,001). Fat percentage was influenced by both sex (P <= 0,001) and age (P <= 0,001). It loin part weight decreased with growing age (P <= 0,001), and was significant (P <= 0,029).according to sex with lower decreasing in males. For the loin percentage, there was recorded interaction of sex and age (P <= 0,038) and was affected by age (P <= 0,007) and sex (P <= 0,007) as well. Decrease was significantly faster in females. The pH values of loin and thighs were growing with age (P <= 0,001) and were influenced by sex as well, for loin (P <= 0,013) and thighs (P <= 0,016). For proteins we have recorded significant interaction of sex and age (P <= 0,009). Fat content was higher in females (P <= 0,009). Conclusion of the thesis showed, that nutrias can be slaughtered in the age of six months, without a negative on effect meat quality. Males are better in carcass yield, higher protein content and lower fat percentage, in comparison of same age of females.
The effect of oviposition on egg quality at the beginning and end of the laying cycle
Greglová, Ellen ; Tůmová, Eva (advisor) ; Michaela, Michaela (referee)
The egg quality is affected by many factors, among which various interactions may occur. The aim of the diploma thesis was to assess changes in the quality of eggs laid in the morning, midday, and in the evening at the beginning and the end of the laying cycle in six laying hybrids: Bovans Brown, Bovans Sperwer, Isa Sussex, Moravia Barred, Moravia BSL and Dekalb White, each individually housed in cages. The experiment was realized at the beginning of lay, between 19 and 26 weeks of age and at the end of lay betwen 64 and 70 weeks of age. During the experiment, were conected eggs at 6 a.m., 9 a.m., 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. and were recorded daily. In total, 300 eggs from each genotype and of each period were evaluated. At the beginning of the laying cycle, the interactions of oviposition time and genotype (P 0.03), were observed in the yolk weight (P 0.004) and the color of the yolk. The highest weight yolk had the eggs laid by white-egg hybrid Dekalb White early in the morning (13.79 g at 6 a.m.) and during the day the weight of yolk decreased. However, the yolk weight of brown-egg Bovan Brown hens increased until 9 a.m. and then decreased again. The darkest yolk was laid by genotype Bovans Brown at 12 p.m. (8.0 g), while the lightest yolk was laid by Dekalb White at 12 p. m. (3.00). At the end of the laying cycle, interactions of oviposition time and genotype (P 0.028) were observed in the albumen percentage. The highest values had hybrid Moravia BSL with eggs laid in 12 a.m., 5 p.m. 64.23 %, 63.33 %), and the lowest percentage had hens of Bovans Sperwer at 9 a.m. (58.19 %). Oviposition time significantly (P 0.003) affected only the strength of the shell. At the beginning of the laying cycle, we recorded higher strength at 9.00 a.m. (54.89 compared to the eggs collected at 6 a.m. and later (41.39 a 24.58 The genotype (P 0.005) affected most of the parameters of quality.

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