National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period
Hrudka, Jan ; Komárek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Tinková, Daniela (referee) ; Stingl, Josef (referee)
Univerzita Karlova v Praze Přírodovědecká fakulta Studijní program: Filosofie a dějiny přírodních věd MUDr. Jan Hrudka Nádory v dějinném a kulturním kontextu v novověku Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period Disertační práce Školitel / Supervisor: Prof. RNDr. Stanislav Komárek, Dr. Praha, 2017 SUMMARY: The PhD thesis called Tumours in historical and social context in the modern period is an attempt to describe a change of medical thinking in modern period; science and medicine turns from antique humoral pathology, explaining all diseases as an imbalance of the four body humours, to pathological anatomy and experimental physiology. In the point of view of pathological anatomy, the viscera of diseased person are no more "screen" or "mirror" of the disease, but it becomes directly the "stage" or "theatre" of the acting disease. This shift in the thought may be labelled as movement from humoralism to localism or ontologism; the disease isn't just abnormal amount of some natural juice any more, but becomes new original entity. This change undergoes the understanding of tumours and cancerous disease as well. Instead of antique understanding tumours as precipitates of black bile, the cell theory occurs in the 19th century. This theory explains tumours as a mass of cells undergoing excessive...
Alternative autologous vascular grafts in cardiovascular surgery
Loskot, Petr ; Tonar, Zbyněk (advisor) ; Stingl, Josef (referee) ; Šebesta, Pavel (referee)
Introduction: Cardiovascular surgery is a relatively young but progressively evolving field in medicine. More specifically, in the past decades, cardiac surgery achieved significant advances in understanding the causes, progression and treatments of ischemic heart disease (IHD). The IHD is the most common coronary disease, and it ranks first in morbidity and mortality in the developed world. It justifies the need for significant fundamental research as well as its study in clinical practice. It now includes specialized cardiovascular centres with the complex specialized treatments. A group of interventional cardiologists capable of performing routine examinations of the coronary veins using selective angiography has been established. They can eventually also perform percutaneous coronary interventions with direct stent implants. Thus the advances have been made in comprehensive indication of the patients towards their optimal treatments under the regime of a cardio-team. Such team comprises of a cardio-surgeon, interventional cardiologist, echocardiography specialist and the attending physician who is usually the cardiologist. The IHD treatments involve preventive cardiology with the regime measures and checks, pharmacotherapy, interventional cardiology and cardiac surgery to spa treatment and...
Linguistic aspects of the information science in the application of the recent technical language with emphasis on anatomical terminology
Musil, Vladimír ; Stingl, Josef (advisor) ; Feberová, Jitka (referee) ; Bozděchová, Ivana (referee)
Although anatomical terminology is in use for more than 2000 years, its first official publication achieved in 1895. The need for development of cogent nomenclature arose due to the high level of synonyms labeling individual anatomical structures. Thus towards the end of the 19th century existed more then 50 000 terms describing approximately 5 000 known structures at that time. Such synonymity caused and still causes chaos, especially in the research activities field. The reason for this is fact that most of the research performed not directly by medical field specialists but also information field specialists does not respect the historical evolution of terms. More, it mixes them according to different issues of the official terminologies. Also, further making the research activity complicated is wrong use of anatomical terms, lack of knowledge and misuse of latine grammary and last but not least americanization of the latine terms. Another hot topic is non existence of the official Czech anatomical terminology. This leads to increased tendency of neologisms formation which in turn causes increase of synonymities. Our study demonstrates above mentioned problems on examples from selected human body structures like locomotory and circulatory systems: bursas, 33 selected skeletal muscles, VIIIth cranial...
Morphology of the Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Eberlová, Lada ; Valenta, Jiří (advisor) ; Stingl, Josef (referee) ; Šebesta, Pavel (referee)
Dissertation Abstract Abdominalaortic aneurysm (AAA) is a serious disease. Its prevalence is in the developed countries about 3%. As an aneurysm is considered a dilatation of all layers of a vessel wall over 3 cm. Majority of AAA are small and asymptomatic, and although the risk of rupture increases with the size of aneurysm sack, even the small aneurysms rupture. The rupture mortaliry ranges about 70 %. Surgical treatment is indicated in the asymptomatic patients in diameter of AAA over 5 cm. The average speed of growth of AAA is 0.3 cm per year, e.g. in the early diagnosed patients there is a several years interval for a pharmacolocical influencing of the progression of this disease. Knowledge of pathogenesis is essential for any targeted pharmacological treatment. Our prospective, non-randomised studies are based on the application of the stereological methods for the histopathological assessment of the AAA samples. The acquired data enable the statistical analysis, including the null hypothesis testing. In our study analyzing the histopathology of AAA aortae of 65 patients (65 walls and 55 thrombi) and 6 normal abdominal aortae from the organ donors we assessed the following parameters: the area fractions of collagen and elastin, and the length density of elastin in intima and media, the area...
Morphology of the Proximal Human Femur in Relation to Fractures of Trochanteric Massif
Báča, Václav ; Stingl, Josef (advisor) ; Koudela, Karel (referee) ; Chomiak, Jiří (referee) ; Laichman, Stanislav (referee)
AIM: Fractures of proximal end, especially fractures of trochanteric massif are very common particularly in old patients. The aim of the work was to try to find a morphological correlate of trochanteric fractures in the region of proximal end of the human femur. It means to find if a "locus minoris resistentiae" for trochanteric fractures origin exists. METHOD: The detailed overview of literature on femur as a bone, classification of trochanteric fractures and treatment of proximal end of the femur was accomplished (sources from medieval books to recent anatomical and clinical studies). Czech and Latin terminological aspect (Terminologia anatomica 1998) of the femur as well as their development were carefully studied. 40 femurs from embalmed bodies with muscles and ligaments were studied by detailed dissection. 99 X-ray pictures of pertrochanteric fractures were checked. 106 dry femurs from the vascular canal distribution point of view were evaluated and compared with previous group of X-rays. Statistic evaluation of normal distribution according to Kolmogorov-Smirnov's test and Liliefors's modification was made in 15 regions of trochanteric massif. 20 dry femurs according to Heřt, Fiala and Petrtýl's method were repeatedly ground to depict the central vascular canals and to describe the course of osteons...
Qualitative analysis of the right use of anatomical nomenclature in selected Czech scientific journals
Musil, Vladimír ; Papík, Richard (advisor) ; Stingl, Josef (referee)
Tématem rigorózní práce je analýza správného užívání anatomické nomenklatury, české a latinské, ve vybraných odborných českých periodikách kvalitativně porovnávané s českým lékařským periodikem s impakt faktorem. První část je zaměřena na popis historického vývoje lékařské terminologie, a to od 16. století (Vesalius) až po současnou verzi. Je také podán přehled vývoje českého anatomického názvosloví Druhá část podává gramatický přehled tvorby anatomického názvosloví. Třetí část je věnována materiálu a metodice analýzy. Materiálem je časopis Rozhledy v chirurgii. Jako kvalitativně porovnávací byl vybrán titul s IF (Česká a slovenská neurologie a neurochirurgie). Sledovány jsou pouze články in extenso, přehledové práce a kazuistiky. Paralelně je sledována frekvence použití anatomických eponym. Také je zde představen Science Citation Index a impakt faktor a vysvětluje se zde pojem eponym a eponymie. Čtvrtá část prezentuje výsledky vlastní analýzy a jejich zhodnocení.
název v anglickém jazyce není uveden
Pavlišta, David ; Dušková, Markéta (advisor) ; Stingl, Josef (referee) ; Strnad, Pavel (referee)
Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become an importatnt tool for axillary lymph node staging in women with early-stage breast cancer. The sentinel node (SN), "guardian node," is the first node that drains the tumor. It is assumed that this node is the first location to which the tumor spreads by lymphatics. In certain cases, more of these nodes may be present. In breast cancer, the sentinel node is usually found in the axilla, although in a small percentage of cases it can be present wherever in the lymphatic system of the breast. The procedure is associated with much less morbidity than axillary dissection, and it has become the axillary staging procedure of choice for many surgeons. It appears that blue dye or radiocolloid, or both, may be used to identify the sentinel node effectively. A variety of injection techniques have been verified succesfully, and many factors previously thoughtto affect the accuracy of the procedure have been shown to be of limited signficance. The indications for the procedureare expanding, and the histopathological evaluation of the sentinel node have been clarified. The positive result of imunohistochemical evaluation of the sentinel node have prognostic significance and should alter the therapy. The aim of the model phase was to test if the location of the tumor and its sentinel...
The occurrence of the ossifications in human costal cartilages - radiograph-scan, histological and histochemical study
Rejtarová, Olga ; Slížová, Dáša (advisor) ; Kreuzberg, Boris (referee) ; Stingl, Josef (referee)
The costal cartilages belong to the group of the permanent cartilages, as well as thyroid, tracheal and the articular cartilages. These cartilages ossify incompletly or do not ossify at all. The ossification of the caudal costal and the articular cartilages is considered to be a manifestation of degeneration, although according to the recent studies the ossification of the thyroid, the tracheal and the first rib cartilages is physiological. The costal cartilage ossification begins at a different age but only in a certain percentage of people. The female and the male pattern of ossification is different. Although the etiology and the occurence of ossification in various populations were studied very deeply, even at the microscopic level, still a lot of questions are not ansvered. Due to the heterogeneity and insuficiency of the data in the Czech literature we decided to evaluate the incidence of the costal cartilage ossification in the sample of the Czech population. We decided to verify the presence of the sexual dimorfism of the ossification and describe the development of the ossification changes at the microscopic level for better understanding of the ossification of human costal cartilage. There are two parts of our study. We used radiograms for the radiological part of the study. We studied...

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