National Repository of Grey Literature 20 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Speciation analysis of mercury in liquid and gaseous samples
Žídek, Radek ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
Generation efficiency of four mercury species, namely elemental mercury and hydrides of methyl-, ethyl- and phenylmercury from liquid samples was quantified. The species chemically generated were quantitatively trapped on a gold-coated amalgamator to be subsequently determined by AMA-254 technique. Three types of construction of volatile species generators were compared. Generation effciciency among the species was comparable, fluctuating around 60% in the conventional flow injection generator equipped with a gas liquid separator with forced outlet. Better results were reached for elemental mercury and methylmercury hydride in an automated batch generator system. Generation efficiency was higher than 90% for these two species and between 60 to 80% for ethyl- and phenylmercury hydrides, respectively. Speciation analysis of elemental mercury and sublimate in gaseous samples was optimized. These two species dominate in flue gases produced during coal combustion or waste incineration. Combination of two sorbent tubes packed with alumina and gold-coated alumina enables selective and quantitative retention of both species. Sublimate is trapped on a column packed with alumina while elemental mercury is retained on gold-coated alumina. The capacity of both sorbents was investigated as well as the effect of...
Speciation analysis of arsenic and mercury using postcolumn generation of their volatile compounds for needs of atomic spectroscopic methods
Linhart, Ondřej ; Červený, Václav (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee) ; Šíma, Jan (referee)
The presented dissertation thesis deals with the use of UV-photochemical generation of volatile compounds (UV-PVG) as a derivatization technique for the combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) detection. Two model elements arsenic and mercury and their compounds were selected for the speciation analysis. The work was divided into several parts that follow. In the first part of the research, the apparatus for the UV-photochemical generation of the volatile mercury compounds and their detection with a new continuum source and high-resolution atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) with an externally heated detection tube was constructed. The analytical method was adapted for use with atomic fluorescence detection with the aim to improve sensitivity of the determination. Furthermore, apparatus for the electrochemical generation of cold mercury vapor with AAS detection was built. The construction of the apparatus was followed by optimization of the reaction conditions (concentration and flow of electrochemical reagents: sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, mobile phase, carrier medium, flow rate of the carrier gas and localization of its introduction), determination of the analytical figures of merit, and comparation of the methods. Both...
Optimization of atomization conditions for bismut, lead and tellurium hydrides for development of hydride atomizers.
Štádlerová, Barbora ; Hraníček, Jakub (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
This Master thesis is a part of a project: Hydride atomizers for atomic absorption and atomic fluorescence spectrometry - new horizons (GA ČR, P206/17-04329S, principal investigator: prof. RNDr. Jiří Dědina, CSc. DSc.) of which the general target is to make a leap towards the ideal hydride atomizer by optimization of atomization based on the knowledge of the distribution of free atoms and hydrogen radicals inside the atomizers. This thesis contributes to the project by optimizing the atomization parameters for atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation. The atomization parameters were optimized for three different types of atomizers - multiatomizer, diffusion flame and "flame-in-gas-shield" atomizer using three different analytes - bismuth, lead and tin. Optimal atomization parameters were found for each of the atomizer and each of the analyte - carrier gas flow and flow of other gases if needed for the analysis. Calibration curves and analytical figures of merit such as sensitivity, LOD and LOQ were estimated. Final comparison is based on the data obtained from calibration curves. MDF and FIGS atomizers are mostly used with AFS detection and they provide lower sensitivity and higher detection limits with AAS detection in comparison with MMQTA. Since the analytes are known to trap...
Development of Instrumentation and Methodology for Elemental and Speciation Analysis of Arsenic Based on Hydride Generation and on Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometric Detection
Marschner, Karel ; Dědina, Jiří (advisor) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
(EN) The presented dissertation is devoted to hydride generation from arsenic species and its application for speciation analysis based on atomic fluorescence detection. Hydride generation from toxicologically relevant arsenic species was optimized in order to achieve a 100% efficiency. The resulted experimental setup was subsequently used for speciation analysis of arsenic in human urine by high performance liquid chromatography with detection by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The accuracy of the developed method was verified by comparative analyses of human urine samples collected from five individuals with an independent reference method. The cleavage of As-C bond during the reaction of methylated arsenic species with tetrahydridoborate(1-) (THB) in acidic media was studied in detail. Pronounced demethylation of methylated arsenic species was found during the reaction of THB with HCl, H2SO4, and HClO4 while hydride generation from CH3COOH or TRIS buffer after prereduction with L- cysteine resulted in the exclusive formation of the corresponding hydrides. Firstly, this phenomenon can endanger the accuracy of arsenic speciation which is based on hydride generation of substituted arsanes. Secondly, the more complex arsenic species can be converted to the hydride. That was demonstrated on hydride...
Trace speciation analysis of arsenic in beverages
Fajgarová, Aneta ; Matoušek, Tomáš (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
The aim of this bachelor thesis was to determine the toxicologically important arsenic species in beverages (beer, wine and apple juice) with minimal sample preparation. Determination of arsenic species was performed by selective hydride generation of arsenic hydrides with cryogenic collection under liquid nitrogen and detection by atomic absorption spectrometry. In all the samples only inorganic arsenic was found, methyl substituted species were below the limit of detection. The method is suitable for speciation analysis of arsenic in beverages. Detection limits are low enough, the determination is not influenced by the sample matrix. The results were also in good agreement with the determination of total arsenic after mineralization by ICP-MS. Since there is no specified maximum arsenic content in beverages, measured concentrations were compared with the limit for drinking water (10 μg l−1 ). All samples were under this limit, except for one sample of apple juice, which arsenic content was about twice higher. Key words speciation analysis, atomic absorption spektrometry, hydride generation, arsenic, beverages
Spectrometric determination of selected metals in the samples from old ecological burden area
Zurynková, Pavla ; Kratzer, Jan (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on heavy metals pollution in the Králíky town and its vicinity, located in the Pardubice region. This region was selected because there had been a Tesla factory producing fluorescent lamps. Moreover, there is also a waste disposal of the fluorescent lamps wasters and other dangerous waste located about two kilometers far from the former factory. Soil samples from the waste disposal area as well as river sediment, samples taken in the Tichá Orlice river and the Králický brook have been analyzed Mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper and arsenic levels in the samples were measured by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. The total mercury content has also been measured with single-purpose atomic absorption spectrometer AMA-254. An optimization of leaching conditions of the elements was performed prior the analysis of the samples employing certified reference material. High levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and copper have been found in the waste disposal area. Regarding the sediment samples the highest levels of pollution have been detected near outfall of the sewage water from the industrial area in the Králíky town (former Tesla factory and recent metal plating industry). The concentration of heavy metals in other sediment...
Hydride generation study for arsenic speciation analysis with AAS and AFS detection
Svoboda, Milan ; Dědina, Jiří (advisor) ; Spěváčková, Věra (referee) ; Komárek, Josef (referee)
The general aim of this work was a development of methodology and instrumentation for speciation analysis based on the combination of the selective generation of substituted hydrides with atomic absorption or atomic fluorescence spectrometry detection. The first topic of this work was the development of methodology and instrumentation for arsenic speciation analysis based on selective generation of substituted arsines with trapping in the cryogenic trap (U-tube packed with chromosorb) with AAS detection (HG- CT-AAS). The conditions of the selective hydride generation approach as well as working procedure of the cryogenic trap were optimized (appropriate approach for hydride generation, set up of heating program of cryogenic trap, new dryer - cartidge with NaOH, elimination of unspecific absorption, decreasing of the detection limits). The second important part of the work lay in applying of the developed method for arsenic speciation analysis in a homogenized mouse liver tissue. The direct slurry sampling to hydride generator was develop. Moreover the information about oxidation state (iAsIII,V , MAsIII,V a DMAsIII,V ) was obtain. The effect of relevant experimental parameters such as tetrahydroborate concentration, TRIS buffer concentration and time of pre-reduction of the samples by L-cysteine...

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