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Preconcentration of Trace Analytes on Modified Sorbents and their Determination on Waters
Holubová, Zuzana ; Čelechovská, Olga (referee) ; Holoubek,, Ivan (referee) ; Otruba,, Vítězslav (referee) ; Sommer, Lumír (advisor)
The work has been focused on the preconcentration techniques for determination of 9Be, 51V, 59Co, 60Ni, 89Y, 111Cd, 208Pb, 232Th and 238U on the modified sorbents, all measurements were performed on ICP-MS. The instrument setup was optimized. The solution of internal standard (200 µg•l-1) was used during all measurements. The internal standard were chosen as follows: 6Li for 9Be, 45Sc (51V), 72Ge (59Co, 60Ni, 89Y), 103Rh (111Cd), 209Bi (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb, 232Th and 238U). Another parameters such as influence of mineral acids (HCl, HNO3), surfactant (Septonex®, Zephyramin, Ajatin, Brij 35 and Sodium dodecyl sulphate) and organic reagents (Ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, 8-Hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid, 1,2-Dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid and 4-(2-Pyridylazo)resorcinol) and the effect of some matrix components on intensity of instrument signal determination was investigated. For preconcentration polar Silicagel and modified nonpolar Silicagels (Silicagel-C18, C8 nad Phenyl) were used. Another experimantal part was dedicated to preconcentration on nonpolar Amberlite XAD-16 and Strata SDB-L and intermediately polar sorbent Amberlite XAD-7. Recoveries of sorption process were observed in the presence of all testing types of surfactants in certified concentration 5•10-4 mol•l-1. Surfactants were always applied in the conditioning step. The suitable combinations of surfactant and organic reagent were tested for increasing of recoveries of analytes. Testing organic reagents were added in five times mass excess againts concentration of analytes, the concentration of the organic reagents was 900 µg•l-1. The organic reagent was always added to the solution for preconcentration before this solution was led on the sorbent. The composition and a necessary volume of elution mixture for quantitative elution were tested, too. Only one sorbent was chosen from each group of sorbents with similar properties. The chosen sorbent showed the best recoveries in majority of target analytes. The highest recoveries from silica-group was reached for Silicagel-C18, from nonpolar Amberlite was chosen Strata SDB-L and intermediately polar Amberlite XAD-7. The influence of some matrix components (anionts and cations) on recoveries of analytes was investigated for chosen sorbent. The optimized process was applied on real samples of nature water and industry water. In experimental part all analytes are marked as specific izotopes, which were measured by ICP-MS. Of course, all izotopes of analytes undergo preconcentration techniques.
Preconcentration Techniques for Determination of Uranium Using the Modified Sorbents.
Moos, Martin ; Řehůřková, Irena (referee) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Sommer, Lumír (advisor)
The work has been focused on the preconcentration techniques for determination of uranium on the modified sorbent, with the final use of ICP-OES and ICP-MS. First ICP-OES at a wavelength of 385.958 nm was used for determination of uranium. Parameters were optimized and the effect of mineral acids (HCl, HNO3), tensides (Septonex, Ajatin) and organic reagents like (4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acid and 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid) was observed. For ICP-MS an isotope 238U was chosen. As an internal standard 209Bi (200 ?g•l-1) was used. Modified silica gel was used (Silicagel tethered with C18, C8 alkyls and phenyl) and two types of Amberlite XAD 4 and XAD 16 for the preconcentration of uranium (VI). Commercially produced Amberlite was modified as follows: Drying at 100 °C (24 hours), milled, minced sorbent was selected and fractionated to particles size ranging from 0.32 to 0.63 ?m and finally activated in methanol. The deionised water and Septonex (5•10-3 mol•l-1) at pH 8 were used for Amberlite conditioning. The optimal sorption of uranium (VI) proceeded at pH 8 in the presence of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol or ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate with Amberlite XAD-16 moreover with 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid. All organic reagents have mass concentration five time larger than uranium . For the elution of uranium the mixture of 1 mol•l-1 HNO3 with acetone (ratio of 1:1) was used. Acetone was evaporated and the final analysis performed using ICP-OES. The preconcentration of uranium (VI) using Silicagel-C18 conditioning was performed with ethanol, deionised water and Zephyraminu (5•10-4 mol•l-1) at pH 8. For the Silica-C8 and Silicagel-Phenyl the same conditioning procedure without zephyramin was used. Silica-C18 had the highest sorption efficiency with 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid, Silicagel-C8 with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate and Silicagel-Phenyl with 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid, all organic reagents have mass concentration five time larger than uranium concentration. As an optimal elution mixture acetone and ethanol (ratio of 1:1) in the presence of 1 mol•l-1 HCl was evaluated. Acetone and ethanol was evaporated and the final analysis was performed using ICP-MS. Silicagel-C18 was evaluate as the most effective in the presence of zephyramin and 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid. Sorption was also tested in the presence of 20 ?g•l-1 microelements (Be, V, Co, Ni, Y, Pb, Th, Cd) and in the presence of a defined concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al and Fe. Direct analysis of uranium was carried out on samples of water from the river Ploucnice and Turonian aquifers containing uranium, 3,5 and 19,3 ?g•l-1. Different type of water required preconcentration of uranium (VI) on Silica-C18 in the presence of 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone-3-sulphonic acid and zephyramin. The analysis results gave statistically satisfactory results, which were confirmed using standard addition of 20 ?g•l-1.
Modification of Diffusive Gradient in Thin Films Technique for Characterization of Environmental Systems
Gregušová, Michaela ; Sommer, Lumír (referee) ; Janoš, Pavel (referee) ; Dočekal, Bohumil (advisor)
Diffusive gradient in thin film technique (DGT) represents a relatively new approach for in situ determinations of labile metal-species in aquatic systems. The DGT device passively accumulates labile species from the solution while deployed in situ, and therefore contamination problems associated with conventional collection and filtration procedures are eliminated. This study deals with a possible modification of DGT technique. The key of using DGT technique for speciation analysis of metals is to find out suitable binding phase and diffusion layer. The new resin gel based on Spheron Oxin (5 sulphophenyl-azo-8-hydroxyquinoline) ion exchanger with a higher selectivity to trace metals than Chelex 100 could potentially provide more information on metals speciation in aquatic systems. The performance of this new binding phase was tested for the determination of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and U under laboratory conditions. The hydrogel layer based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) was synthesized and tested as a new diffusion gel for application in DGT technique.
Development of Gel Techniques for in situ Measurement of Bioavailable Metals in Soils and Sediments
Kovaříková, Vladěna ; Sommer, Lumír (referee) ; Janoš, Pavel (referee) ; Dočekalová, Hana (advisor)
The doctoral thesis deals with usage of gel techniques for in situ measurement of bioavailable metals in soils and sediments. The DGT technique was applied to soil samples from the localities of Zlín, Tuřany and Chrlice for estimation of bioavailable metals in soils. These soils were amended by sewage sludges in years 1980-1987. The experiment using diffusive gels with different pore size, APA and RG gels, has shown that the DGT can be used for assessment of trace metal soil complexes - small inorganic and larger organic. The results obtained by DGT measurements were approximately up to two orders of magnitude lower than metal concentrations obtained by leaching with sodium nitrate. The leaching with sodium nitrate does not provide true reflection of metal availability to plant root system and soil microorganisms and the DGT technique seems to be a better predictor of metal bioavailability. Only small differences between undisturbed and homogenized soil samples were found out by application of DGT to soil samples from localities of Veverská Bítýška and Ostrovačice. The undisturbed soil is not homogenous and the DGT unit gives information only about the part of the soil which is in direct contact with the unit. The procedure with soil slurry can be recommended for the characterization of large soil areas and estimation of bioavailable metals in soils. Gel techniques were also used for the study of processes occuring in sediments. Mercury species and other metals were analysed in surface water, pore water and sediments collected from two sampling sites in the Dele River in northern France. This river had been polluted during the last century by the activity of Métaleurop factory, which dealt with metal ore treatment. The application of DGT technique using two specific ion-exchange resins, Chelex-100 and Duolite GT-73, provided assessment of mercury in sediment pore water. DGT and DET techniques together with centrifugation provided also high resolution depth profiles of Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cr and Cd in pore water. It is not possible to determine which sampling site was more contaminated. Only small differences in mercury species and metal content were observed between sampling sites. The Dele River can be classified as contaminated river according to total mercury content in sediments and as slightly contaminated river from the point of view of methylmercury content. Correlations between mercury species and sulphide content confirm that total mercury and sulphide content count among factors influencing the mercury release to pore water and controlling processes of methylation and demethylation. Only low toxicity of sediment slurries was found out by the bioluminiscence test with Vibrio fischeri. The results of doctoral thesis demonstrate gel techniques as a very good tool in environmental analysis.
Study of Generation, Trapping and Atomization of Hydride Forming Elements for Atomic Spectrometry
Furdíková, Zuzana ; Sommer, Lumír (referee) ; Čelechovská, Olga (referee) ; Řehůřková, Irena (referee) ; Dočekalová, Hana (advisor)
Interference effects of co-generated hydrides of arsenic, antimony, bismuth and selenium on trapping behavior of selenium or antimony hydrides (analytes) within iridium modified, transversely heated graphite tube atomizer (THGA) was investigated. A twin-channel hydride generation system was used for independent separate generation and introduction of analyte and interferent hydrides, i.e. in simultaneous and/or sequential analyte-interferent and interferent-analyte mode of operation. Influence of the analyte and modifier mass, interferent amount, trapping temperature and composition of the gaseous phase was studied. A simple approach for elimination of mutual interference effects by modification of the gaseous phase with oxygen in substoichiometric ratio to chemically generated hydrogen is proposed and suppression of these interference effects is demonstrated. A hypothesis on mechanism of trapping and mutual interference effects is drawn.
Multicomponental Preconcentration of As, Sb, Se and Te on Modified Silica, Their Determination by ICP-AES (ICP-MS) and Application for Waters
Urbánková, Kristýna ; Řehůřková, Irena (referee) ; Kanický, Viktor (referee) ; Ventura, Karel (referee) ; Sommer, Lumír (advisor)
The determination of inorganic speciations of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in natural waters demands often separation and preconcentration. Solid phase extraction is a very effective method for these purposes. In this paper the separation and preconcentration of these microelements is realised on the basis of modified silica Separon SGX C18, SGX C8, SGX CN, SGX NH2, SGX Phenyl and strongly basic anion Exchanger SGX AX. The sorption was provided in the presence of cationic surfactants such as benzyldimethyl dodecylammonium bromide (Ajatin), benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride (Zephyramine), 1-ethoxycarbonylpentadecyltrimetrhylammonium bromide (Septonex) and selected complexing agents 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR), 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulphonic acide (8-HQS), 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (PYR), amonium 1-pyrrolidinecarbodithioate (APDC), sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) or thiourea(Thur). The interactions of the formed ion associate with the sorbent shows a complicated character which has not been cleared as yet. The previous conditioning of the sorbent plays an outstanding role. Thus, the sorption efficiency was studied in the presence and absence of surfactant and of selected organic complexing agents. Moreover, the influence of pH of the sorbed solution as well as the speed and the volume of the solution running through the sorbent and the type and volume of the eluent on the resulting sorption efficiency was evaluated. The sorption was successfully carried out from 50-1000 ml of solution which allows the 100 fold increase of the preconcentration factor and the determination of the microelements in g.l-1 instead of mg.l-1 by using the common ICP-AES. The influence of macroelements occurring in waters as well as B, Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr, Ti, V and Zn in comparable concentrations involve less than 5% error. After the quantitative elution of microelements, the organic solvents were evaporated under IR lamps prior to the determination by ICP-AES and |ICP-MS. The conditions for the direct determination of arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium in g.l-1 with ICP-MS were also described in detail in the absence and presence of internal standards Ge and Bi. However, even in this case the preconcentration on silica in the presence of surfactant and selected organic complexants was also tested. When the sorption was followed from 500 ml a 50 fold enrichment factor is reached and the sensitivity for the microelements is improved. The direct determination and the sorption of microelements were applied on synthetic and real waters (dirinking, surface, mineral and sea waters). Instrumental and practical detection limits for various water samples were evaluated according to IUPAC. The results from 1000 ml solution of real waters after sorption on modified silica and the final determination of microelements with ICP-AES were compared with those from ICP-MS without sorption using the method of standards addition in the presence of suitable internal standards. By comparison of results for synthetic and real water samples the error of the determination of microelements was evaluated.
Spectrophotometric determination of phosphate in ternary systems with dyes
Novotný, Radek ; Komendová, Renata (referee) ; Sommer, Lumír (advisor)
The theoretical part of this master’s thesis is focused on the characteristics and forms of phosphorus, occurrence in natural waters and the problems associated with higher phosphorus concentrations, especially in the development of cyanobacteria and algae. There are also described the possibilities of determining the degree of pollution of natural waters by nutrients and the effects of eutrophication. There are also described methods for the determination of phosphates, especially spectrophotometric determination in ternary systems with dyes. Like other methods are mentioned AAS, ion chromatography, electrophoresis and izotachophoresis, electrochemical methods or enzymatic methods. In the experimental part of this work deals with the selection and optimalization of suitable ternary system with organic dyes for spectrophotometric determination of orthophosphates. The system with phosphovanadomolybdic acid is studied too. For analytical procedure with malachite green oxalate, which was found to be most useful, were studied interfering ions, commonly occurring in natural waters . The chosen procedure was finally tested on real water samples.
Microdetermination of cobalt by methods of molecular and atomic absorption spectrometry
Charuza, Martin ; Řezáčová, Veronika (referee) ; Sommer, Lumír (advisor)
This diploma thesis is focused on microdetermination of cobalt by UV-VIS spectrophotometry with organic agents and comparison with atomic absorption spectrometry. In the first part properties, occurance and importance of cobalt in the environment are desribed, complete with as a part of vitamine B12. Attention is also given to cobalt compounds, especially in the oxidative states +II and +III. Methods of preconcentration and preparation cobalt determination in real samples are adduced. In this thesis are described some optical analytical methods with accept on spectrophotometric agents for determination of cobalt. The experimental part of this thesis icludes optimalization of the spectrophotometric determination of cobalt with choosen organic agents 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcin and 2-(5-Brom-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol and optimalization of atomic absorption spectrometry for cobalt determination. All of real samples of water (surface, underground, mineral and waste) were measured by both 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcin and 2-(5-Brom-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol via UV-VIS and via atomic absorption spectrometry. Results of determinations were compared. A sample of vitamine B12 was measured too by all techniques.
The issue of determination of tin in environmental matrices
Bušinová, Markéta ; Sommer, Lumír (referee) ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals with the retrieval of the content of tin in environmental media, the circulation in them and possibilities of the determination of tin in the environment. Summarizes available information on the properties of tin and its compounds, the occurrence and circulation of tin in environmental and determination of tin in environmental media, attention is paid to the determination of total tin content using method of ET-AAS. The experimental part is focused on optimization methods of determination for the ET AAS and selection of a suitable extraction procedure for determination of total tin content in soils and sediments. The best procedure for the determination of tin in the ET-AAS was applied to samples of soil, sediment and water. As the optimum matrix modifier was chosen the solution of Pd (NO3)2 in 5% ascorbic acid, the optimum pyrolysis temperature was 1400 °C and atomization temperature 2400 ° C. Neither of extraction procedures examined were found to be an appropriate procedure for the determination of tin in environmental samples and further work is necessary to optimize the method of separation.
Determination of hazardous elements in soils with different anthropogenic contamination using sequential extraction analysis
Židek, Michal ; Sommer, Lumír (referee) ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (advisor)
This diploma thesis deals about determination of hazardous elements and their mobility in soils from Brno and Ostrava. For extraction of soil samples was used sequential extraction by Tessier and BCR sequential extraction. Extraction by nitric acid was also used. Mercury was determinated by the advanced mercury analyser AMA 254. Lead, copper and zinc were determinated by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Cadmium and vanadium were determinated by the electrotermic atomic absorption.

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