National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Mechanisms of apoptosis induction and inhibition by fatty acids in pancreatic β-cells
Šrámek, Jan ; Kovář, Jan (advisor) ; Brunerová, Ludmila (referee) ; Šeda, Ondřej (referee)
Recently, diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) represents one of the most important metabolic diseases according to its incidence and economic impacts. One of the main reasons of this diesease is loss of function and viability of pancreatic β-cells due to the effect of increased levels of saturated fatty acids (FAs). Unsaturated FAs are better tolerated by β-cells. They are even capable of inhibiting detrimental effects of saturated FAs. Molecular mechanisms of apoptosis induction in pancreatic β-cells by saturated FAs as well as mechanisms of inhibition of this induction by unsaturated FAs are not completely elucidated. The main aim of this study was to contribute to elucidation of these mechanisms. Concerning human pancreatic β-cell line NES2Y we demonstarted: (1) Activation of caspase-2 by stearic acid (SA), in apoptosis inducing concentration (1 mM), is not crucial for the process of apoptosis induction. However, this caspase modulates SA-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. (2) SA (1 mM) activates the p38 MAPK signaling pathway and inhibits the ERK signaling pathway. Inhibition of the ERK signaling pathway is probably a consequance of the p38 MAPK pathway activation. However, p38 MAPK is not very likely crutial for the apoptosis induction by SA. Unsaturated oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mM) is able to...
Low carbohydrate diet in type 2 diabetes mellitus therapy
Kábelová, Adéla ; Krejčí, Hana (advisor) ; Šeda, Ondřej (referee)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a highly prevalent metabolic disorder, which substantially affects quality of patients' lives and simultaneously increases the risk of early death due to development of its specific complications. Current T2D therapy comprises mainly pharmacotherapy, however, lifestyle changes, particularly modification of dietary habits, also assume an important role in the process. While conventional dietotherapy of T2D primarily concerns reduction of dietary fat intake aiming to achieve caloric restriction, the low carbohydrate diet (LCD), recently often discussed in relation to T2D therapy, is based on the reduction of dietary carbohydrates, whereas fats and/or proteins are increased. The positive effects of LCD in T2D therapy and its comorbidities are summarized in the theoretical part of this thesis. The aim of the practical part of the bachelor thesis was to asses the effect of LCD on health parameters associated with T2D as well as the subjective sense of respondents' satisfaction with this diet together with their adherence and compliance. The results of the survey showed that LCD led to weight loss, decreased waist circumference, glycaemia and levels of glycated haemoglobin and led, in a number of cases, to medication reduction. The level of satisfaction with LCD in the...
Interaction of PPARG gene polymorphisms with diet components in pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes
Petrů, Karolína ; Šeda, Ondřej (advisor) ; Schierová, Michaela (referee)
Type 2 diabetes is a multifactorial trait as interactions between genetic predispositions and environmental factors contribute to its pathogenesis. Nuclear receptor PPARG (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) belongs among genes with substantial impact on pathophysiological processes leading to manifestation of type 2 diabetes. Metaanalyses of human studies showed that several common polymorphisms of this gene are involved in interactions with environmental factors, particularly diet, physical activity and medication. The aim of this Bachelor thesis is to summarize current knowledge on nutrigenetic interactions comprising polymorphisms of PPARG gene and specific qualitative and quantitative parameters of the diet in relation to pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
Pharmacogenetics of statins and metabolic syndrome
Kučera, Miroslav ; Šeda, Ondřej (advisor) ; Schierová, Michaela (referee)
Metabolic syndrome is one of the most prevalent conditions in our population. Among components of the syndrome is a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases - a change in blood lipid profile presented by alterations in cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels. Statins are currently the drug of choice for therapy of dyslipidemia. This group of drugs is characterized by inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in liver. Pharmacogenetics is a progressive field studying interactions between drugs and genetic background of a patient. There has been described a large amount of genetic variants affecting pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects of statin effects. These variants were shown to be important for course of treatment and development of side effects such as statin myopathy. First, this work characterizes pharmacogenetics, metabolic syndrome and statins. Second, it provides a comprehensive summary of genetic polymorphisms underlying important pharmacogenetic interactions with statins.
The genetic background of obesity and its treatment with bariatric surgery
Lischková, Olga ; Bendlová, Běla (advisor) ; Šeda, Ondřej (referee) ; Mráz, Miloš (referee)
Obesity is a frequent metabolic disease that causes many other health and socioeconomic complications. Obesity arises due to excessive energy intake and decrease in energy expenditure, which is a conseqence of contemporary lifestyle. Moreover, obesity has a strong genetic component. Common obesity is polygenic, multifactorial disease, in which individual genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies, conducted between 2006-09, led to the discovery of dozens of gene loci that predispose individuals to obesity. The strongest signals were registered for polymorphisms in FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and near a gene MC4R (melanocortin 4 receptor). However, the contributions of these variations on the phenotype of obesity are very small, therefore, it is necessary to validate the results of such robust studies. It is very important to uncover the effects of genetic variants for understanding the molecular mechanisms of energy metabolism. The studies presented in this thesis refer about the impact of polymorphisms in selected genes on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of the patients of the Institute of Endocrinology and of healthy volunteers who underwent functional tests. Our cohort includes a representative sample of Czech children (COPAT...
Functional genomic and pharmacogenomic analysis of metabolic syndrome aspects
Krupková, Michaela ; Šeda, Ondřej (advisor) ; Haluzík, Martin (referee) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Metabolic syndrome is a prevalent disease characterized by concurrent manifestation of insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and other hemodynamic and metabolic disorders. It has multifactorial type of inheritance and its resultant phenotype is determined by both environmental and genetic factors as well as their interactions. That is the main reason why comprehensive analysis of the genetic component of this syndrome is complicated in human population. Genetically designed experimental animal models are significant tools for analysis of genetic architecture of human complex conditions including the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this Thesis is utilization of functional and comparative genomic tools to uncover pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome aspects and their genetic determinants. We also studied pharmacogenetic interactions of these genetic determinants with drugs affecting particular components of the metabolic syndrome. Establishing and utilizing several genetically designed congenic rat strains, we undertook four different research projects focusing on pharmacogenetic interaction of all-trans retinoic acid and ondansetron with differential segment of rat chromosome 8, pharmacogenetic interaction of differential segment of rat chromosome 4 and dexamethasone, determining Plzf...
The endocrine function of adipose tissue and its importance for initiation and development of insulin resistance and diabetes
Haluzík, Michal ; Schreiber, Vratislav (advisor) ; Marešová, Dana (referee) ; Šeda, Ondřej (referee)
Endocrine production of adipose tissue is a very complex process affected by numerous endogenous and exogenous stimuli. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha (PPAR-) are important modulators of metabolic processes which can also affect endocrine function of adipose tissue. Recently, numerous novel factors produced by adipose tissue with important metabolic effects were identified. Some of them can directly bind PPAR receptors. One of the examples of these factors is fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) which can directly bind PPAR receptors and indirectly modify its activation by changing availability of endogenous PPAR ligands -free fatty acids. We hypothesized that the mechanism of action of PPAR receptors to metabolic processes may partially lie in their complex interaction with adipose tissue-derived hormones. The unraveling of these interactions may have important consequences in finding approaches to treat patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (...) In summary, our data show an important role for the interplay of PPAR activation and endocrine function of adipose tissue in metabolic regulations which may have important clinical consequences.
Modification of RAPID 200 Aircraft for Towing
Seďa, Ondřej ; Daněk, Vladimír (referee) ; Píštěk, Antonín (advisor)
This master’s thesis deal with design modification of the RAPID 200 (Skyleader 200) airplane for towing at compliance with maximum take-off weight 450 kilogramme. A necessary construction modification, a weight analysis these adjustments and a balance verification are included. The thesis contains of power plants installation consisting from the M 132 engine and the V 541.2 propeller, a towing gear and a landing gear, a load calculation of power plants and towing gear and basic flight performance calculation too. Last but not least valuation of operation ekonomy, operation characteristics assesment and a using of the airplane for specialized duty are included.
Aircraft design regulations
Seďa, Ondřej ; Pešák, Miroslav (referee) ; Píštěk, Antonín (advisor)
Baccalaureate work includes set of regulatins needs for aircraft construction. Out of printed are caregory qualification and using after european regulations CS, american regulations FAR and regulations for ultra-light aeroplanes. Mentioned are also regulations for operation and pilots training.

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