National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Anti-inflammatory compounds and stem cells in treatment of spinal cord injury
Kárová, Kristýna ; Jendelová, Pavla (advisor) ; Sameš, Martin (referee) ; Chvátal, Alexandr (referee)
Despite intense scientific efforts, spinal cord injury (SCI) remains to be a severe neurological condition that has no treatment. Currently, therapy is based on alleviating pressure by surgical spinal cord decompression, administration of methylprednisolone and physical therapy. In this study, therapeutic effects of anti-inflammatory compounds and of three types of stem cells were tested in a balloon compression model of spinal cord injury in rats. Natural compounds epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) or curcumin were administered in situ and then intraperitoneally every day for up to 28 days. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), human spinal neural precursors (SPC-01) and neural precursors derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-NPs) were transplanted intrathecally (MSCs) or via spinal injection into immunosuppressed rats 7 days after induction of SCI. To determine effects of therapies, changes in motor function was tested by open field test BBB, flat beam test and score, Plantar test and rotarod. Morphometric analysis was used to assess gray/matter sparing and cavity size. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine survival and differentiation of transplanted cells, activation of classical pathway of NFκB (p65 nuclear translocation), astroglial activation (GFAP) and...
Modelling of changes of the intracranial pressure (ICP) during physiological and pathological processes
Vaněk, Petr ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Suchomel, Petr (referee) ; Sameš, Martin (referee)
The more we know about the circulation of CSF through ventricle system, brain parenchyma, subarachnoideal space and the development of intracranial pressure (ICP), the more we understand different pathologies and pathological processes of the central cervous system. The knowledge about the basic hydrodynamic charecteristics of craniospinal system is a key factor for understanding a wide range of pathological situations affecting CNS, these are for example intracranial hypertension, normal pressure hydrocephalus and syringomyelia. In the presented paper, we are presenting a newly developed measuring system Visionbrain that enables us to gain the biological data and consequently to analyse them. At the same time, the results of such measurements were used to specify the compertmental model of CSF circulation. The model devides craniospinal system into five divisions - two intracranial and three spinal. Such model is the third generation of this model and, compared to the older version, it includes two intracranial veins. Thanks to this stucture, the model enables us simultaneous modeling of heart and respiratory pulsations of CSF. Compared to the other published models, it also includes defined structure of spinal part. The model is derived using laws of conservation and it encompasses pressure...
Stem cells and modified biomaterials in the for the treatment of spinal cord injury
Růžička, Jiří ; Jendelová, Pavla (advisor) ; Sameš, Martin (referee) ; Zvěřina, Eduard (referee)
Progress in experimental treatments of spinal cord injury (SCI) utilizing growth factors, stem cells and biomaterials has revealed the pathological mechanizms of the secondary processes and demonstrated the potential of combined therapy for future clinical treatment. The mobilization of bone marrow by the combined application of Flt3 ligand and G-CSF diminishes astrogliosis and increases axonal sprouting and thus leads to more pronounce spinal tissue sparing and neurological improvement when compared with single treatments. All types of stem cells used in this study significantly decreased the locomotor deficit after SCI. The most noticeable impact was observed in the NP-iPS treated group, especially due to their long term survival, interaction with host tissue, their impact on glial scarring and modulation of the immune response. MSCs, despite their short lifetime, decrease the immune response after SCI and modulate glial scar formation. The lowest effectivity on locomotor recovery after SCI was demonstrated by fetal spinal progenitors, which were not capable of sufficient integration into the host tissue, even though they showed long-term survival and differentiation. The methods used to prepare methacrylate based hydrogels have a significant impact on the adhesion, growth and survival of MSC...
Stenting of carotid stenoses with distal protection device and intravascular ultrasound
Lacman, Jiří ; Krajina, Antonín (advisor) ; Kalvach, Pavel (referee) ; Sameš, Martin (referee)
Stenting of carotid stenoses with distal protection device and intravascular ultrasound Carotid artery stenting is generally accepted and less invasive alternative to surgical endarterectomy for indicated patients. The goal of the treatment is to prevent strokes and subsequent neurological problems. This paper introduces the current state of this method of intervention, its indications and specifically addresses the issue of possible uses and benefits of intravascular ultrasound ( IVUS) and virtual histologization (VH ) in the diagnosis of carotid stenosis and atherosclerotic plaque and treatment of carotid artery stenosis. The author performed 119 IVUS examinations on 110 patients, 33 of these examinations were made virtual histologization of plaque. Periprocedural complications were observed during IVUS examination and stenting. Using the virtual histologization, atherosclerotic carotid plaques were classified into types according to their composition (risk vs . risk-free plaques) and correlated with the length of stenosis and percentage of stenosis. In the IVUS group there were 80 men and 30 women, the average age was 72 years, symptomatic carotid artery was examined in 69 cases (58 %), asymptomatic in 50 cases (42 %). To the IVUS -VH group were counted 33 patients who underwent 35 examinations....
Changes of the diffusion parameters of brain tissue caused by pathologic processes - the use of diffusion tensor imaging
Zolal, Amír ; Sameš, Martin (advisor) ; Hájek, Milan (referee) ; Hluštík, Petr (referee)
The thesis contains a summary of research of the changes of diffusion parameters of the white matter performed using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Because of the diversity of topics discussed, the text is logically divided into chapters. In the first part, the thesis contains two studies concerning the measurement of the regional changes of the diffusion parameters. The second part is dedicated to the use of the method as an instrument to explore the topographic relationships of the pyramidal tract (and other large descending tracts contained within the same space - corticopontine, corticonuclear tracts etc.). Concerning the regional changes of diffusion, the manuscript discusses two problems. One is represented by the distant changes of the pyramidal tract in the brainstem caused by a tumor adjacent to the tract in its supratentorial course, where a significant decrease of the fractional anisotropy (FA) and the increase of the tensor trace value, corresponding to mean diffusivity (MD). The second discussed problem are the artificial changes in the diffusion parameters measured after gadolinium contrast administration, that were showed to be significant even in areas outside of the postcontrast enhancement areas. The second part of the thesis most importantly confirms the accuracy of the depiction of the...
The significance of the S100B protein in patients with an injury to the central nervous system
Lavička, Pavel ; Choc, Milan (advisor) ; Náhlovský, Jiří (referee) ; Novák, Zdeněk (referee) ; Sameš, Martin (referee)
Inroduction: The S100B protein is a small dimeric protein which belongs to a group of calcium binding proteins. It is found in astroglial cells in the central nervous system (CNS). The S100B protein is detected, at very low concentrations, in fat tissue, muscle and bone marrow. We can measure this marker in the cerebrospinal fluid, in serum and in urine. The commercially available assay measures the sum of two different dimers (the S100A1B and S100BB) which collectively are called the S100B protein.The level of this marker increases significantly in patiens with CNS damage. Studies of patients with isolated head trauma have demostrated a correlation between serum marker level, neurological findings and outcome. In patients with polytrauma there is a problem to evaluating the initial S100B protein level with regards to CNS damage, because the S100B protein level can be affected by extracerebral sources of the S100B protein. Aim of study: The aim of our study was to evaluate the significance of the S100B protein in patiens with either isolated head trauma or polytrauma and to evaluate the significance of the initial level and the significance of dynamic monitoring of the S100B protein levels. The importace of these levels for predicting primary CNS damage, and for making a prognosis of such patiens...
Evolutionary Library for the Communication Protocols Design
Sameš, Martin ; Trchalík, Roman (referee) ; Očenášek, Pavel (advisor)
Developement and verification of new security protocols, which meets the requirements, needs automated techniques. This work deals with the possibility of using evolutionary approach in design of security protocols. By showing and comparing different methods and using some of them to create evolutionary library for support in developement of new communication protocols.

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