National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Breast cancer in young women: correlation of molecular-genetic, clinical and morphological features
Metelková, Alena ; Fínek, Jindřich (advisor) ; Tesařová, Petra (referee) ; Ryška, Aleš (referee)
In the first part of the dissertation the author summarizes the current knowledge of breast cancer, which is the most frequent malignancy in female population. The author deals with etiology, classification, diagnostics, biological behaviour, therapeutical forms ranging from surgical treatment and radiotherapy, to systemic therapy. In the following part of the manuscript the author describes specifics of breast cancer diagnosed in premenopausal women. She describes how the risk factors, treatment and prognosis differ from the disease in postmenopausal women. Next section of the dissertation includes a retrospective case series evaluating group of patients with breast cancer ≤ 35 years. There were 16 294 cases of breast cancer proven histologically in Biopticka lab Pilsen, ltd. and Sikl's Department of Pathology, Faculty Hospital Pilsen, during 2006-2015. The cohort of patients in our retrospective study includes 356 young women (2,2%) with breast cancer, under 35 years of age by the time of setting the diagnosis. We sorted out a group of 93 patients from the basic cohort, that were or have been treated in the Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Faculty Hospital in Pilsen. A control group consists of 100 postmenopausal women ≥ 65 years of age, chosen randomly from all patients treated in the...
Morphologic and molecular characterization of triple-negative breast carcinoma for identification of clinically relevant subtypes
Sobande, Ayotunde Folakemi ; Ryška, Aleš (advisor) ; Brychtová, Svetlana (referee) ; Dundr, Pavel (referee)
Morphologic and molecular characterization of triple negative breast carcinoma for identification of clinically relevant subtypes Introduction: Breast carcinoma is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, and the number one cause of cancer death in women. Despite the recent advances in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment, a problem is still posed by the so called 'triple negative breast carcinomas' (TNBCs). These tumours are associated with poor prognosis and are unlikely to respond to hormonal or anti-HER2 therapy. TNBCs are grouped together despite the clear heterogeneity within the subtype; there is no widely accepted evidence- based and clinically relevant way to sub-classify them. Neither is there any standard form of targeted therapy for the disease. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is being investigated as a potential target for treatment of TNBC. The purpose of this study was to try to identify clinically significant morphologic and/or immunophenotypic subtypes within the triple negative group of breast carcinomas. We also aimed to study the associations between EGFR changes and TNBC phenotype and clinical behaviour. Materials and methods: We performed an immunohistochemical (IHC), in situ hybridization and histo- morphological study on a set of 52 archive cases of pre-treatment TNBC....
Setting of Optimal Algorithm for Effective Diagnostics of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma with ALK Gene Rearrangement
Rozkoš, Tomáš ; Ryška, Aleš (advisor) ; Dundr, Pavel (referee) ; Zámečník, Josef (referee)
(Identification of optimal algorithm for effective diagnostics of non-small cell lung carcinoma with ALK gene rearrangement - implementation of the method and practical experience with routine diagnostics) INTRODUCTION: Smaller subgroup of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is represented by tumours with carcinogenesis iniciated by fusion of ALK gene with another partner (usually EML4). Patients with ALK gene rearrangement treated with ALK inhibitors have significantly prolonged survival. Since ALK gene rearrangement is described according to the current WHO classification in 4-5% of NSCLC, it is necessary to find the optimal way of identifying patients eligible for this targeted therapy in routine diagnostic practice. AIM: In the retrospective part of the study a) to find an immunohistochemical (IHC) detection procedure of ALK protein with specificity and sensitivity high enough to use this antibody as screening method for selecting NSCLC cases for fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing of ALK gene rearrangement and b) to determine diagnostic yield of "small" biopsies, i.e. endobronchial, transbronchial and transthoracic biopsies and cytoblocks, for ALK gene rearrangement testing. In the prospective part of the study a) verification of the selected IHC method of ALK protein detection...

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