National Repository of Grey Literature 11 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The Utilization of the Molecular-Biology Method One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) for Examination of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Endometrial Cancer Patients
Kosťun, Jan ; Presl, Jiří (advisor) ; Fínek, Jindřich (referee) ; Roztočil, Aleš (referee)
Hypothesis The One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification method could represent an effective intraoperative tool for detection of metastatic involvement of lymphatic nodes on the level of ultrastaging in endometrial cancer patients. Objective Utilization of the One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) molecular biology method for the detection of the micrometastatic and macrometastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer patients. The objective is a comparison with the conclusion of the histopathological ultrastaging of sentinel lymph nodes and a description of the clinical consequences of this method. Methods Patients indicated for the surgical treatment of endometrial cancer underwent the detection of sentinel lymph nodes that was executed using the intracervical application of a tracer. Nodes larger than 5 mm were cut into sections 2 mm thick parallel to the short axis of the node. Odd sections were examined using the OSNA method, while even ones were examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical examination to detect cytokeratin 19 antibody (IHC CK19) based on an ultrastaging-relevant protocol. Nodes of the size of 5 mm and smaller were divided into halves along the longitudinal axis with one half being examined using the OSNA method and the other half by...
Obstetric interventions and pelvic floor disorders
Rušavý, Zdeněk ; Kališ, Vladimír (advisor) ; Roztočil, Aleš (referee) ; Mašata, Jaromír (referee)
Obstetric interventions and pelvic floor disorders - Abstract One of the principal objectives of obstetric interventions in the second stage of labor is prevention of pelvic floor trauma and associated pelvic floor disorders. The most commonly used and also most frequently discussed interventions are manual perineal protection and episiotomy. The majority of pelvic floor disorders are of subjective nature. Therefore, tools for objectification and severity quantification of these disorders are the key to reliable comparison and identification of the most effective interventions. The aim of the dissertation was to find the most effective modification of manual perineal protection, to compare two frequently used types of episiotomy regarding all pelvic floor disorders and finally to find a consensus on the most suitable instrument for anal incontinence severity assessment. Our studies concerning manual perineal protection experimentally described the direction and extent of perineal deformation during vaginal delivery. The subsequent studies on biomechanical model demonstrated that the most effective method of manual perineal protection in peak perineal strain reduction is when the fingers are placed on the perineum 6 cm laterally and 2 cm ventrally from the posterior commissure at both sides and are...
Antibiotic prophylaxis of extensive obstetric perineal injuries repair
Menzlová, Erika ; Záhumenský, Jozef (advisor) ; Procházka, Martin (referee) ; Roztočil, Aleš (referee)
Objective Our aim was to compare two regimens of antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of repair of obstetric anal sphincter injury. Benefit of long regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis in comparison with short regimen of antibiotic administration haven't been till now proven. Material and Methods Women who gave vaginal birth in department of gynaecology and obstetrics of the First Faculty of Medicine of Charles University and Hospital Bulovka from 1.1.2008 to 30.6.2013 and who sustained third - or fourth - degree perineal tears have been enrolled in our trial. All women who fulfilled trial criteria received at the time of repair antibiotic prophylaxis which was cefuroxim (second - generation cephalosporin). This antibiotic has good sensitivity to vaginal gram-positive flora and to rectal gram-negative microorganisms too. Suture technique and following postpartum care have been standardized. All enrolled women were checked 2 weeks and 3 months after delivery. We evaluated subjective and objective parameters of healing of the obstetric perineal injury and 3 months postpartum we looked for symptomps regarding anal incontinence. The Manchester questionnaire was used for evaluation of anal incontince occurance. Results Incidence of third - and fourth - degree perineal tears was 1,4 % during period of our...
Importance and methods of sentinel nodes identification in endometrial cancer
Hrehorčák, Martin ; Rob, Lukáš (advisor) ; Roztočil, Aleš (referee) ; Špaček, Jiří (referee) ; Masák, Ladislav (referee)
STRUCTURED ABSTRAKT Title: Importance and methods of sentinel nodes identification in endometrial cancer Author: Martin Hrehorčák Objective: To evaluace the results of tree different protocols of sentinel node identification in endometrial cancer. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gyneacology, Charles University, 2nd Medical Faculty, University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech republic. Methods: 141 women with verified endometrial cancer were included into the study. 10 subjects were excluded due to the duplicity with another malignit tumour, extrauterine spread and non- endometroid type of the tumour. Three different protocols for sentinel lymph node detection were described: Tc99 was applied hysteroscopically peritumorous in 22 women. Subserous peritumorous application of the radiocolloid and patent blue dye was performed in 66 women. Subserous diffuse injection of this combination to eight sites was performed in 43 subjects. Results: 2220 lymph nodes were harvested in 131 women, average 16.9 per subject. 215 sentinel lymph nodes in 91 women were obtained, average 2.36 per subject. Detection rate was 69.46. 63.4% sentinel nodes were identified in the external iliac area, 17.8% in supraobturator area, 8.9% in common iliac area, 4.25% in medial part of lateral...
The influence of reduced radicality of oncosurgical treatment on urogenital tract morbidity
Chmel, Roman ; Rob, Lukáš (advisor) ; Halaška, Michael (referee) ; Mlynček, Miloš (referee) ; Roztočil, Aleš (referee)
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common gynecological malignancy in Czech Republic. The incidence of cervical cancer in 2008 was 19.2/100000 (1021 women) and mortality reached 6/100000. Both radiotherapy and surgery have comparable results in the treatment of cervical cancer but surgical treatment is still the favoured modality especially in young female. Very succesful curability of early stages of this disease (88-97 %) based on individualized therapy currently leads to emphasize the quality of life increasing of treated women. Morbidity related to the treatment is connected with radicality of surgery. The dominant objective of the submitted study was prospective detection of preoperative and postoperative control over the micturition and urinary continence in 142 evaluated women who underwent nerve-sparing radical abdominal hysterectomy type C1, less radical surgery - laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy type A or less radical fertility sparing surgery - laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy and simple trachelectomy. Postoperative morbidity is connected with both pelvic lymphadenectomy and resection of the paracervix and proximal part of vagina with hypogastric nerve and inferior hypogastric plexus injury. The lower urinary tract function before and after the...
Delivery and the Pelvic Floor
Kališ, Vladimír ; Rokyta, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Martan, Alois (referee) ; Roztočil, Aleš (referee)
Vaginal Birth in Primiparas and Anal Incontinence Objective: An investigation of incidence and degree of anal incontinence after vaginal delivery among primiparas and characterizing of the risk factors Design: Prospective observational study Setting: Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Charles University and Faculty Hospital Pilsen, the Czech Republic Methods: 346 primiparas after consecutive vaginal delivery between 2000 and 2001 were included. All delivered in lithotomy position. Questionnaires were sent few days after delivery and then 2 and 6-9 months later. Analysis of returned questionnaires. 28 obstetric parameteres assessed. Results: 46.5% women responded. 23 women registered leakage of flatus before delivery. Two months postpartum 1 (0.6%) patient reported fecal incontinence and 22 (14.3%) flatus incontinence de novo or impaired already present incontinence. 6-9 months after delivery the same patient (0.6%) reported fecal incontinence and 16 women (10.4%) incontinence of flatus. 10 of them felt impaired quality of life. Anal incontinence gradually improved during the time (in 76%). Risk factors of developing (worsening) of anal incontinence were antenatal anal incontinence (in two months period) and women weight (or BMI) meassured at 6-9 months after birth. None of nine patients after forceps...

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