National Repository of Grey Literature 4 records found  Search took 0.02 seconds. 
Human heart valve allografts mechanical and morphological properties according to duration of tissue cryopreservation
Fiala, Radovan ; Burkert, Jan (advisor) ; Dominik, Jan (referee) ; Rosenberg, Josef (referee)
Background: The aortic and pulmonary allograft heart valves (AHV) are used in the cardiac surgery for replacing the impaired semilunar valves. They are harvested from donor hearts and cryostored in tissue banks. The expiration period was set to 5 years arbitrarily. We hypothesized that their mechanical and structural properties do not reasonably deteriorate after this period. Methods: A total of 64 human AHV (31 aortic and 33 pulmonary) of different length of cryopreservation (fresh, 0-5, 5-10, over 10 years) were sampled to different tissue strips (artery, leaflet, ventriculo-arterial junction, arterial ring) and tested by tensile test with loading velocity 10 mm/min until tissue rupture. Neighbouring regions of tissue were processed histologically and evaluated for elastin and collagen area fraction. The results were evaluated statistically. Results: In aortic AHV, the physical deformation response of wall samples to stress did not changed significantly neither during the process of cryopreservation nor during the first 10 years of storage. In pulmonary AHV, the ultimate strain dropped after 5 years of cryopreservation indicating that pulmonary artery was significantly less deformable at the time of rupture. On the other hand, the ultimate stress was equal during the first 10 years of...
Exploitation of Experiments for Improvement of Level Constitutive Models of Aortic Aneurysm Tissues
Man, Vojtěch ; Horný,, Lukáš (referee) ; Rosenberg, Josef (referee) ; Burša, Jiří (advisor)
This paper deals with the problem of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), taking into account the possibility of using mechanical tests of aortic tissues for improvement of level of their constitutive models. First part of thesis deals with the introduction into the problem, description of the structure of the wall of the healthy aorta, its main components and the degenerative changes which lead to formation of AAA. This is followed by a brief excursion into constitutive modeling, which focuses closely on the description of the models used to describe the mechanical behavior of soft tissues. The theoretical part is then supplemented by a narrower selection of constitutive models used for modeling aortic wall and intraluminal thrombus, together with published results, which are reviewed and discussed at the end of this section. The main part of this thesis is devoted to tests of mechanical properties of arterial tissues. First, the methodology is presented together with the description of the customizations of the laboratory equipments together with the test rig. In addition, attention is focused on the results of mechanical tests of intraluminal thrombus, where the results of both uniaxial tensile tests and equbiaxial testing are presented. Also the influence of distance ILT from the lumen on the mechanical properties of the thrombus is examined. Another area of interest is the investigation of the effect of elastase on the chnage of mechanical properties of pig aorta. In this case, porcine aortas are experimentally tested only by biaxial testing, and the time of elastase action to alter the mechanical properties is analyzed so that the resulting tissue has a similar stress-strain response as aneurysmal tissue. Finally, the results of experimental measurements, limitations and other possible ways of research are summarized.
Mechanical properties of mitral allografts
Hlubocký, Jaroslav ; Špatenka, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Dominik, Jan (referee) ; Rosenberg, Josef (referee)
Mitral allograft has never been as widely used as the aortic one for the treatment of infective endocarditis in clinical practice. Results of mitral valve replacements with mitral allograft were poor. Development of better techniques of mitral valve repair and improving quality of valve prostheses led surgeons to abandon use of mitral allografts in mitral position. On the other hand that technique could be helpful for treatment of tricuspid valve pathology, mainly of infectious endocarditis. We were evaluating the possibility of inserting a cryopreserved mitral allograft into the tricuspid position in a sheep experimental model. Within the framework of this experimental project the mechanical properties of the cryopreserved mitral allograft were tested. A novel methodology of graft tissue mechanical properties testing was developed. It reflexes the surgical technique of mitral allograft transplantation as it investigates whole functional unit composed of mitral annulus, leaflet, chordae tendinaea, and papillary muscle together. A five-parameter Maxwell model was applied to characterize the viscoelastic behavior of sheep mitral valves. A control group of 39 fresh mitral specimens and a test group of 13 cryopreserved mitral allografts processed according to the tissue bank standards were tested. The testing...
Polyzos, Christos ; Kovanda, Jan (advisor) ; Pavlů, Dagmar (referee) ; Rosenberg, Josef (referee)
Introduction: Scoliosis influences the optimal posture and locomotion of the human body. Lumbar and thoraco-lumbar scoliosis has possibly an even greater impact due to the close relation with the pelvic region, a major determinant of gait. The effect of moderate idiopathic scoliosis on the gait cycle of young adults is of major interesting. Discussion-Hypothesis and aims: Young adults (20-40 years old) with MIS (lumbar and thoraco-lumbar primary curves) present kinematic modifications regarding the convex (ipsilateral extremity) or concave (controlateral extremity) side of the body as well as variations compared to non-scoliosis individuals during the gait cycle. Aim of this study was to indentify these variations on the physical quantities exerted from the major joints of the lower extremities as well as the center of gravity too and examine their significance in adult patients with MIS. Materials and methods: A cohort of twenty young adult patients (group A, 12 females- 8 males, mean age 39,7 years) having MIS with mean Cobb's angle 29o (24o to 34o ) and a control group (B) of fifteen (8 females, 7 males) of healthy individuals were submitted in clinical examination and 3-D gait analysis. Direct linear transformation (DLT) was used for analysis of linear displacement on the three axes (x, y and z) as well...

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7 Rosenberg, Jan
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