
Stochastic simulations and modelling in the magnetotelluric method
Klanica, Radek ; Pek, Josef (advisor) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee) ; Velímský, Jakub (referee)
In the thesis I deal with the development of a stochastic inversion procedure for the magnetotelluric method in 1D/2D isotropic and anisotropic cases, and its application to both synthetic and real data. The magnetotelluric method is a geoelectric inductive technique that utilizes variations of naturally occurring electromagnetic fields as a source of the electromagnetic induction for estimating the Earth's subsurface resistivity to depths of several tens of kilometres. The purpose of the inversion procedure is to estimate a real distribution of the electrical resistivity in the Earth's subsurface from surface measurements. Common inversion procedures in magnetotellurics perform a model optimization by minimizing the misfit between the data and the model response. Stochastic methods are based on the exploration of the model parameter space, and they pick models according to their probability, which makes them effective for the solution of highdimensional problems which do not show a single pronounced minimum of the target function. The effective ways of mapping the parameter space are sampling algorithms based on Monte Carlo simulations which allow to sort models according to their probability. Results of these methods are obtained in the form of a fully probabilistic description of the...


Approximation of static moduli of rocks from dynamic moduli determined by sonic well logging using Tmatrix model
Chalupa, František ; Vilhelm, Jan (advisor) ; Rudajev, Vladimír (referee) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee)
(EN) Thesis deals with an approximation of static moduli in wells from dynamic moduli determined by acoustic well logging using Tmatrix model. Proposed approach makes possible to determine moduli values, which are close to values of static moduli, which would be determined by loading tests. This approach is based on an idea, that an intact rock with sufficiently high compressional strength sc and sufficiently high value of static Young's modulus Es, manifests more or less linear elastic behaviour. In such case, the values of static and dynamic moduli are identical. This fact has been experimentally verified for rocks with values of sc and Es in order of higher tens of MPa and GPa respectively. In case of a rock damage presence in such rock, it's behaviour becomes nonlinearly elastic. The amount of nonlinearity is proportional to increasing amount of rock damage. This results in the difference between values of static and dynamic moduli. Tmatrix model is used to quantify this difference. This model is based on an anisotropic rock matrix with ellipsoidal inclusions. These inclusions can affect each other. The result of this model calculation is a group of values of elastic constants, which we call effective moduli. These effective moduli include the effect of porosity in the rock as well and they...


Effect of water reservoirs to seismicity
Beránek, Roman ; Vilhelm, Jan (advisor) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee)
The appearance of seismic activity after construction and filling of a water reservoir has been observed in many places around the world, including localities considered to be formerly aseismic. Occurrence and intensity of these earthquakes are determined by water reservo irs' parameters, filling and discharging states and by local geological conditions and regional tectonic stress. The thesis firstly deals with two of the world's known significant hydroseis micity examples and described is also seismicity in Nový Kostel area. The different types of hydroseismicity are thoroughly described along with all the major differences from ordinary earthquakes. The thesis further explains how water reservoirs may affect conditions important for earthquake occurrence such as hydrostatic pressure increase, pore pressure increase, and groundwater flow. These influences are related to water level fluctuations and therefore are described methods to analyze the relationship between earthquake occurrence and water level changes. Classical methods of crosscorrelation and frequency analysis are explained as well as not so common method of SSA (Singular Spectral Analysis). In the last section are all of these methods listed above applied to seismic data from the Nový Kostel area and water level measurements from...

 

Teleseismic Tomography of the Upper Mantle beneath the Bohemian Massif
Karousová, Hana ; Plomerová, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee) ; Zahradník, Jiří (referee)
Passive seismic experiments, MOSAIC, BOHEMA IIII, EgerRift, or, PASSEQ, carried out in the region of the Bohemian Massif (BM), allowed a detailed study of velocity structure of the upper mantle. We present results of tomography studies of the upper mantle beneath the northeastern and southern parts of the BM based on the data from the BOHEMA II and BOHEMA III experiments (20042006). Despite the fact that regions with the highest resolution of velocity perturbations differ in the models, tomography images are similar in overlapping parts. Models of the upper mantle show mostly low velocity perturbations relatively to radially symmetric velocity model of the Earth beneath the BM. Limited highvelocity heterogeneity beneath the Moldanubian unit, extended in the NESW direction, reflects thickening of the lithosphere due to a collision of the BM with the Brunovistulian microplate during the Variscan orogeny. The tomography based on the data from the BOHEMA III experiment revealed significant highvelocity heterogeneity in the southern margin of the model with a subduction of the lithosphere beneath the Eastern Alps. Tomographic tests showed that effects of uncorrected velocity heterogeneities within the crust can appear as deep as 100 km and, therefore, they could lead to erroneous interpretation of...


Seismic noise analysis at selected stations of the WEBNET network
Bachura, Martin ; Fischer, Tomáš (advisor) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee)
Seismic signal is affected by noise of nongeological origin. The main source of seismic noise is in human activities. Seismic noise of human origin occurs in the frequency range from one to the first tens of Hz. The noise intensity limits the lower level of the earthquake size that can be recorded by a seismic network. The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seismic noise on selected stations of the West Bohemian seismic network WEBNET which operates in the area since the early nineties. The earthquakes in West Bohemia/Vogtland are manifested in the form of longlasting earthquake swarms with the magnitudes ranging up to ML = 3.8. The way how the seismic noise influences the seismic stations and their capability of recording small earthquakes can be classified by a statistical and timefrequency analysis. We applied this method to the selected stations NKC, KRC and SKC. The results show that the effect of noise does not deteriorate the seinsitivity of the three stations for recording small earthquakes. Despite of quite good results, some differences occur among the three stations, which are most probably caused by the distance of the stations to the populated areas. The smallest noise influence is observed at the stations located far from settlement (NKC and KRC) compared to the station located in a small...


Seismic Site Effects (Data Analysis and Modelling)
Caserta, Arrigo ; Zahradník, Jiří (advisor) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee) ; Burjánek, Jan (referee)
A comprehensive study of the soil shaking under the seismic wavefield ex citation is presented. It includes theoretical, geological, geotechnical, data analysis and numerical simulations aspects. The aim is to quantify the main parameters allowing the estimate of the soil shaking in urban areas for better mitigating seismic risk due to future earthquakes. The city of Rome has been chosen as a case study because of its high density of popula tion and large concentration of historical monuments with high earthquake vulnerability. This study improves significantly the knowledge concerning the detailed nearsurface geology of the chosen study area of Rome, ful fills the absence both of knowledge concerning its geotechnical properties and earthquake data recordings in the city. Among others, it allows for a better explanation of the spatial damage pattern observed in the city due to earthquakes in the past. The main innovations include the construction and longterm operation a seismic array in the city, analysis of the natural seismic noise, and instrumental recordings of the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake sequence. The 3D array (including a borehole sensor at 70m depth) is the first one in Italy planned, realized and operated within an urban area, and the first one that recorded a significant earthquake in...


Surface Wave Analysis and InversionApplication to the Bohemian Massif
Kolínský, Petr ; Prokop Brokešová, Johana (advisor) ; Novotný, Oldřich (referee) ; Růžek, Bohuslav (referee)
title: Surface Wave Analysis and Inversion Application to the Bohemian Massif author: Mgr. Petr Kolínský, DiS. author's email address: kolinsky@irsm.cas.cz departments: Department of Geophysics Faculty of Mathematics and Physics Charles University Prague V Holešovičkách 2, Praha 8  180 00, Czech Republic and Department of Seismology Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics, v.v.i. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic V Holešovičkách 41, Praha 8  182 09, Czech Republic supervisor: RNDr. Johana Brokešová, CSc. supervisor's email address: johana.brokesova@mff.cuni.cz consultant: RNDr. Jiří Málek, PhD. consultant's email address: malek@irsm.cas.cz keywords: surface waves, group velocity, phase velocity, frequencytime analysis, multiple filtering, tomography, inversion problems, Earth crust structure, Bohemian Massif An overview of surface wave analysis methods as well as of inversion techniques is given. Special attention is paid to the multiple filtering method for dispersion curve estimation, which is described by two different ways in detail. The isometric method is used for dispersion curve inversion and its description and tests are presented. Described methods are further used in applications. The applications show examples of surface wave analysis and inversion for 1D and 2D...


SLICE Seismic lithospheric investigation of Central Europe
Akademie věd ČR, Geofyzikální ústav, Praha ; Uličný, David ; Růžek, Bohuslav ; Hubatka, František ; Špaček, Petr ; Švancara, Jan ; Brož, Milan ; Novotný, Miloslav ; Karousová, Olina ; Hrubcová, Pavla ; Špičák, Aleš ; Novotný, Miroslav
Projekt SLICE má za úkol zkoumat hlubinnou stavbu středoevropské oblasti a jeho cílem je přispět k výzkumu stavby zemské kůry a svrchního pláště v oblasti Českého masivu a jeho styku se sousedními tektonickými jednotkami. Pro studium hlubinné stavby je využívána seismická refrakční metoda, kdy se registrují seismické vlny generované uměle vyvolanými odpaly a posléze je zjišťována rychlost šíření seismických vln v různých hloubkách. Tyto údaje pak zprostředkovaně poskytnou informace o strukturních vlastnostech měřeného prostředí až do oblasti svrchního pláště. Je popsáno propojení refrakčních experimentů ALP 2002 a SUDETES 2003 na našem území.


Robust solver of a system of nonlinear equations
Růžek, Bohuslav ; Kolář, Petr ; Kvasnička, M.
ANNIT (Artificial Neural Network Inversion Tool) is solver of a set of non linear equations. It is implemented in MATLAB and Scilab. ANNIT is based on numerical approximation of mapping the right hand sides residuals of the original set of equations to searched parameters. A population of individuals is used for building such approximation. The shape, location and size of this population is adaptively changed during the inversion depending on the convergence of the solved problem. ANNIT has been thoroughly tested by using a set of standard problems and also by using selected geophysical problems (localization of the earthquake hypocenter, magnetotelluric inversion, inversion of group velocities of surface waves etc.).
