National Repository of Grey Literature 6 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Complex characterisation of medical herbs and study of their utilization in food industry as a source of functional components
Burdějová, Lenka ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Šilhár, Stanislav (referee) ; Polovka, Martin (advisor)
Presented thesis deals with the complex characterization of extracts from medical plants using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, with emphasis on the influence of solvent, post-harvest treatment of the sample, location and year of production on selected parameters. Part of the work is devoted to application of selected extracts from medical plants in suitable form into beverages. The thesis is divided into two parts. At the first part of the work combination of electron paramagnetic resonance, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was applied for characterization of aqueous, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide extracts from 10 selected medical plants, which were collected from two different locations during two years (2015, 2016) and post-harvestly treated by two ways (freezing, drying). In total, 39 parameters were determinated: namely total phenolic compounds content, total flavonoids content, 14 specific phenolic compounds, colour characteristics in the CIE L*a*b* system (L *, a*, b *, C*, h°, BI), radical-quenching activity using the cation radical of the 2,2'-azino-bis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), antioxidant/pro-oxidant activity using the spin trapping technique in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolin-N-oxide (DMPO)/potassium peroxodisulphate and content of 15 minerals (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Zn). The results confirmed that the studied parameters of medical plants are influenced by the extraction system, post-harvest treatment of samples, year of production, origin of samples (locality) and species composition. It has been shown that the type of extraction solvent significantly affects the composition of the extracts. On the basis of these analyzes, for food application – the isolation of the main functional components (phenolic compounds, flavonoids) –50% ethanol, post harvest treatment by drying and samples of Mentha piperita, Melissa officinalis, Hypericum perforatum and Salvia officinalis were selected. The second part of the thesis was focused on the application of selected extracts of medical plants to beverages (syrups). The above mentioned plants, 25% ethanol instead of 50% ethanol (due to the limitation of the ethanol content in final raw material), were selected for the application. At first, extraction of medical plants was optimized. Suitable ratio of material and solvent (1:10), extraction time (8 h) and herb absorbency (50–62 %) were determined. The prepared extract after filtration was applied to the syrup concentrate in different ratios to produce one-species syrups and further sensorially tested to select the suitable recipe, the best flavour and basis for the production of two-species syrups. The mint syrup was the most tasty and generally the most acceptable one-species syrup, and sage syrup was selected as the basis for two-species syrups. Further, the most appropriate recipes of the two-species syrups were chosen, the most sensorially acceptable one was selected and further tested if it would be appropriate to colour them. Preferentially, it has been found that it is not necessary to colour two-species syrups. On the basis of the sensory analysis, it has been found that peppermint and sage-peppermint syrups were the most tasty and acceptable syrups, which could be, after further testing, produced industrially to enrich the food market.
Modern Approaches in Qualitative Aspects of Foods Assessment
Tobolková, Blanka ; Omelka, Ladislav (referee) ; Rapta, Peter (referee) ; Buňka, František (referee) ; Polovka, Martin (advisor)
Antioxidant properties and some other characteristics of selected organic and conventional products (wine, spelt flours) were evaluated in view of their potential utilization as markers suitable for food unambiguous differentiation according to the affiliation to production system. Beside these, study of fruit juices stability during storage in dependence on different technological procedures of juice processing was performed. In both cases, combination of dominantly EPR and UV/VIS spectroscopy but also other methods (e.g., HPLC, AAS, electrophoresis) was applied to evaluate the stability and antioxidant properties of selected samples. Statistical methods, especially methods of multivariate statistics were used to assess the influence of production and technological-processing operations on antioxidant status of foods and their selected characteristics. Qualitative analysis of Slovak and foreign organic and conventional wines proved that their antioxidant properties are influenced by production system, vintage and variety. On the basis of statistical analysis, descriptors of AAE, kTEMPOL and %RS were selected as the most powerful markers for Slovak organic and conventional wines discrimination. The discrimination of white and red organic and conventional wines possessed 100% and 95.2% correctness, respectively. High correctness of differentiation of Slovak and foreign wines was also achieved. Monitored descriptors of antioxidant activity of spelt flours varied in dependence on season, origin, variety, production system and depend also on way of spelt treatment, although this effect is not so significant. It was also confirmed that the type of extraction agent substantially affects the composition of extracts including polyphenols and flavonoids concentration, affecting thus also their antioxidant activity. Mixture of 50% ethanol/water was selected as the most promising extraction system. Although the results of individual spectroscopic assays revealed high variability and often ambiguous trends, the differences found were sufficient for successful differentiation of both wines and spelt flour samples according to the selected criteria by multivariate statistical processing of the data. Influence of changes in technological procedures of fruit juice processing (nitrogen atmosphere application, utilization of caps with oxygen scavengers) on radical-scavenging properties of 100% pineapples juices with pieces of pineapple and 100% orange juices with pulp was assessed as well. Results obtained proved that antioxidant activity of juices varied in dependence on storage conditions (temperature, storage time, light exposure) and depends also on origin, variety and quality of fruit used. However, the application of nitrogen atmosphere and active packaging materials is not sufficient enough to eliminate the oxidation reactions in juices, but changes in antioxidant activity are better predictable. It can be concluded that EPR spectroscopy could be effectively applied for wines and spelt flours differentiation according to the way of production and to assess the stability of food products, either alone or in combination of UV/VIS spectroscopy and the other methods, utilizing multivariate statistics for processing of experimental data.
Study of qualitative parameters of fruit juices and possibilities of their modification via technological modifications
Fajtl, Zdeněk ; Omelka, Ladislav (referee) ; Polovka, Martin (advisor)
Ovocné šťávy jsou celosvětově nejoblíbenějšími nealkoholickými nápoji. Kromě vitamínů a minerálů jsou také bohatým zdrojem polyfenolů, které jsou považovány za látky přispívající k celkové antioxidační aktivitě. Zvyšující se požadavky konzumentů na kvalitu a bezpečnost potravin nutí výrobce k zvyšování výrobních a kvalitativních standardů potravin. Nedávné inovace ve výrobě ovocných šťáv vedly k modifikacím výrobních podmínek, které zahrnují změny ve složení šťávy (např. přídavek ovocné dužiny nebo malých ovocných kousků), vylepšování vlastností obalových materiálů a modifikace produkční atmosféry. Cílem diplomové práce bylo pomocí metod EPR a UV-VIS spektroskopie posoudit vliv různých výrobních postupů na vybrané kvalitativní znaky (antioxidační aktivita, změna barvy a koncentrace vybraných fytochemikálií) pomerančových šťáv s dužinou a ananasových šťáv, a charakterizovat jejich změny v průběhu dlouhodobého skladování. Získané výsledky byly zpracovány metodami multivariační statistické analýzy s cílem posoudit vliv původu suroviny, roku produkce a použitých výrobních podmínek na sledované parametry a celkovou kvalitu ovocných džusů. Výsledky jasně prokázaly, že pasterizace ovlivňuje kvalitu výrobku; ačkoli byla použita „šetrná“ pasterizace, byl u těchto vzorků pozorován mírný pokles prakticky všech monitorovaných parametrů v porovnání s čerstvými – nepasterizovanými šťávami. Avšak pokud jde o po-pasterizační změny, byl prokázán významný vliv produkční atmosféry na monitorované kvalitativní parametry šťáv, prokazující, že náhrada kyslíku inertními plyny může výrazně prodloužit trvanlivost šťáv. Kinetické studie změn sledovaných parametrů na době skladování ukazují, že ve většině případů dochází k postupnému zhoršování všech monitorovaných parametrů, a to bez ohledu na technologii zpracování šťávy. Ve vzorcích vyrobených použitím modifikované atmosféry bylo, v závislosti na typu inertního plynu, pozorováno zpomalení poklesu jednotlivých kvalitativních parametrů šťáv jako výsledek aplikace inertní atmosféry. Tento trend byl zřejmý především pro delší skladovací období, zatímco na začátku skladování (6 - 7 týdnů po výrobě dané šťávy) byly pozorované trendy nejednoznačné. Lze proto předpokládat že tento „ochranný“ efekt inertní atmosféry je ovlivňován fyzikálně-chemickými vlastnostmi jednotlivých plynů, zejména jejich rozpustností v kapalném médiu. Výsledky také prokázaly že vlastnosti šťáv jsou ,bez ohledu na druh ovoce, výrazně ovlivňovány také sezónními vlivy a původem surové šťávy. Z výsledků statistické analýzy vyplývá, že rok výroby je silným diskriminačním faktorem. Na základě všech monitorovaných charakteristik, bylo dosaženo absolutní diskriminace vzorků pomocí kanonické diskriminační analýzy. Pokud jde o původ surovin, byla dosažena pouze částečná diferenciace, i když s poměrně vysokým klasifikačním skóre. Pokud jde o technologii výroby, byla dosažena pouze částečná diferenciace vzorků podle typu použitého inertního plynu. Získané poznatky pomohou výrobcům ovocných šťáv s optimalizací výrobních podmínek s cílem získat výrobek s maximem prospěšných vlastností, které by si udržel po celou dobu expirace, jejíž délka může být také optimalizovány na základě prezentovaných výsledků.
Characterisation of alcoholic beverages by means of spectrospic methods
Fajtl, Zdeněk ; Omelka, Ladislav (referee) ; Polovka, Martin (advisor)
The bachelor’s project is focused on the problem of determination of thermo-oxidative stability of mixed Radler - type drinks with low alcohol content. The project consists of both, theoretical and practical parts. The theoretical part describes the basic technological procedures used in the production of lager-type beer and also mixed drinks of Radler type. It also deals with the issue of antioxidants and/or oxidative processes with specific focus on beer and its components. The author also pays attention to spectroscopic methods, which are recently extensively applied to characterize different qualitative and quantitative parameters of foods; predominantly UV-VIS, IR and EPR spectroscopy. These methods were chosen with respect to the topic being studied. In the experimental part, the application of EPR spectroscopy and spin traps methods for the characterization of thermo-oxidative stability of the selected group of commercially available samples of Radler-type beer is presented. The values of the induction periods which were taken as a measure of thermo-oxidative stability, are compared, both for the group of Radler-type beers under study and for the commercially available samples of typical lager-type beers of identical producers, which were taken as for reference.
Spin-trapping of radical products of H-transfer from oxygeneous donors
Šafaříková, Lenka ; Polovka, Martin (referee) ; Omelka, Ladislav (advisor)
Within the bachelor thesis the evaluation of experimental material focused on EPR study of spin-trapping of phenoxyl radicals on aromatic nitrosocompounds was performed. It was found that phenoxyl radicals from unhindered phenols add to nitrosogroup in the ortho-position. As a result, the nitroxyl radicals are formed. According to the structure of nitrosocompounds this nitroxyl radicals have the character either of phenoxazinoxyl radicals in the case of nitrosobenzene or derivatives of diphenylnitroxyl radical in the case of nitrosoduren. In the work is also documented the specific behavior of some phenols containing methyl group as the para substituent.
Spin-trapping of radical products of H-transfer from carboneous donors
Krkošková, Petra ; Polovka, Martin (referee) ; Omelka, Ladislav (advisor)
On example of special type of a coumarine derivatives and also compounds with character of esters and diesters, which have an –CHR- group between two carbonyl groups or between carbonyl and imino group, the possibility of detection of C-radicals resulting from the homolytic splitting of the C-H bond of a methylene group was studied. PbO2 was used as an appropriate compound, on which surface the coumarine derivatives and the other compounds are decomposed. C-radicals were investigated by means of technique of spin-trapping and by comparison of experimental and simulated EPR spectra.

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1 Polovka, Maroš
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