National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Prospective study of long-term visual sequelae of acute methanol poisonings
Nurieva, Olga ; Zacharov, Sergej (advisor) ; Lišková, Petra (referee) ; Pohanka, Miroslav (referee)
Background: Methanol poisoning is a life-threatening condition which induces acute toxic optic neuropathy with possible long-term visual sequelae in survivors. Aim: To study the prevalence, character, dynamics, and key determinants of chronic morphological and functional visual pathway changes during 4 years after methanol-induced optic neuropathy. Methods: A total of 55 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning with mean age 46.7 ± 3.6 years (46 males and 9 females), and 41 controls were included in this prospective longitudinal cohort study. The patients were examined 4.9 ± 0.6, 25.0 ± 0.6, and 49.9 ± 0.5 months after discharge. The following tests were performed: visual evoked potential (VEP), optical coherence tomography with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complete ocular examination, biochemical tests, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotyping. Results: Of 42/55 patients with all three consecutive examinations, abnormal RNFL thickness was registered in 13 (31%) and chronic axonal loss during the observation period was found in 10 (24%) patients. The risk estimate of chronic global RNFL loss for arterial blood pH<7.3 at admission was: 11.65 (1.91-71.12; 95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex. The patients with chronic axonal degeneration demonstrated...
Testing of new potencial substances for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease
Drtinová, Lucie ; Pohanka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Patočka, Jiří (referee) ; Mokrý, Milan (referee)
University of Defence in Brno Faculty of Military Health Sciences in Hradec Králové Department of Toxikology and Centre of Advanced Studies Student: Mgr. Lucie Drtinová Supervisor: pplk. doc. RNDr. Miroslav Pohanka, Ph. D., DSc Title of Disertation: Testing of new potencial substances for the treatment of Alzheimer's Disease Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia which is manifested especially by loss of short-term memory, spatial disorientation, progressive loss of cognitive function and progressive deterioration of intellect. It is estimated about 36 million (mostly AD) people worldwide suffer from dementia and this number continues to grow. AD is unpredictable, multifactorial disease of unknown origin and casual therapy. In most post- mortem investigated brains, loss of nerve tissue, oxidative damage induced by inflammation and neuronal decay, extracellular aggregated amyloid beta in amyloid plaque and hyperphosphorylated tau protein tangles were discovered. This disease always ends lethally after 2-10 years from diagnosis. At present, the only available drugs for AD are for symptomatic treatment and most treated patients build a tolerance to them over time. The effect of drugs used in the treatment of AD is based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (donepezil,...
Antiproliferative activity of novel dexrazoxane analogues and their effect on antitumor effectiveness of anthracyclines
Martinková, Pavla ; Jirkovská, Anna (advisor) ; Pohanka, Miroslav (referee)
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Biochemical Sciences Candidate: Bc. Pavla Martinková Supervisor: PharmDr. Anna Jirkovská, PhD. Title of diploma thesis: Antiproliferative activity of novel dexrazoxane analogues and their effect on antitumor effectiveness of anthracyclines Athracycline antibiotics (such as daunorubicin, doxorubicin or epirubicin) belong to the most common terapeutics of both solid tumors and hematological malignities. Unfortunately the serious and life-threatening adverse effect cardiotoxicity compromises their clinical usefulness. The only approved protection against anthracycline cardiotoxicity so far is dexrazoxane. Despite the outstanding cardioprotective ability, dexrazoxane use is very limited mainly due to its possible side effects. So we were directed towards synthesis of dexrazoxane analogues with better pharmacological properties. The aim of this diploma thesis was to assess the antiproliferative activity of novel analogues of both dexrazoxane (MK-15 and ES-5) and ADR-925 (JR-159 and KH- TA4) and their influence on the antiproliferative effectiveness of anthracyclines. Moreover, we aimed to study their chelating properties and their inhibition of the topoisomerase II in solution. We tested the antiproliferative activity of...
Study of new acetylcholinesterase modulators
Račáková, Veronika ; Opletalová, Veronika (advisor) ; Pohanka, Miroslav (referee)
Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Drug Control Candidate: Mgr. Veronika Račáková Consultant: Assoc. Prof. RNDr. Veronika Opletalová, Ph.D. Title of Thesis: Study of new acetylcholinesterase modulators. Organophosphorus compounds are chemically organophosphates or organophosphonates. They have been widely used as a pesticides but because of their high toxicity and relatively cheap and easy synthesis they can be easily misused as chemical weapons - nerve paralytic compounds. Toxic effect of these compounds is based on irreversible inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). In case of intoxication by these compounds anticholinergic drugs (atropin) and reactivators of AChE are usually used as antidots. The effect of the reactivators is based on splitting the complex enzyme-inhibitor. Pralidoxim, trimedoxim, obidoxim and asoxim (HI-6) are still the most often used reactivators all over the world. They are the compounds which contain oxime group and one or two quarternary nitrogens in their molecule, what ensures that their affinity to AChE will be strong enough. Screening and synthesis of new more effective broad-spectrum reactivators of AChE with lower side effects is still very actual and discussed theme. Strategy...
The different extraction techniques using for HPLC evaluation of some drugs
Kračmarová, Alžběta ; Mokrý, Milan (advisor) ; Pohanka, Miroslav (referee)
In this study the reversed-phased HPLC method for determination of an atypical antipsychotic drug amisulpride in a rabbit plasma was developed. The amisulpride is a benzamide derivative, which antagonizes human dopamine D2/D3 receptors. The main clinical efficacy of this drug is the therapy of both negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia and low propensity to produce extrapyramidal sight effects. A Separon SGX C18 (size of particles 7 μm) as a stationary phase, a mixture of an acetonitrile - 0,1M amonium acetate (pH 5,6) 40:60 (v/v) as a mobile phase and an ambroxol as an internal standard were used for the analysis. Before the determination a solid-phase extraction was made. The method is linear in concentrations between 200 and 800 ng/ml (y=0,0065x-0,0695, r2 =0,9930), selective and robust. The analysis time was 11 min. A teoretical part of this study is approached to methods of an extraction, which is a very important step in an analysis of a biological material.
The relationship between structure and activity of potential reactivators of acetylcholinesterase I.
Holas, Ondřej ; Opletalová, Veronika (advisor) ; Pohanka, Miroslav (referee)
The realtionship between structure and activity of potencial reactivators of acetylcholinesterase Organophosphorus compounds (OPC) are used as agricultural pesticides and in industry as fire retardants or plastificators. For military use there have been developed nerv agents (NA, e.g. tabun, sarin, somna, VX). The toxicity of these compounds is based upon phosphorylation or phosphonylation at the serine hydroxy group (Ser200) of the active site of the acetylcholinesterase. The current standard treatment consists of administration oxime reactivators in combination with anticholinergic drug (preferably atropin). Unfortunately, none from the currently used oximes is sufficiently effective against all types of the OPCs. The aim of this study is determination of the relationship between structure and activity of new reactivators against paraoxon inhibited AChE in vitro and comparison with currently available substances. For evaluation of reactivation activity has been chosen standard in vitro test using rat brain homogenate

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2 Pohanka, Martin
2 Pohanka, Michal
1 Pohanka, Milan
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