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Incidence and role of the purinergic P2X7 receptor in the immune system
Piskačová, Kateřina ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
It has been shown recently that extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine are key mediators in the immune system. Depending on the concentration, ATP may act as an activator or an inhibitor to the immune response, whereas adenosine is generally well known as a specific immunosupressor. Signals delivered by extracellular ATP and adenosine are detected and transduced by purinergic P2- and P1- receptors, respectively. In principle, all cells of the immune system express P2X, P2Y and adenosine P1 receptors on their plasmatic membrane. Therefore, the purinergic signaling extends to all components of the immune and inflammatory responses, including neurodegenerative diseases. This knowledge triggered a wave of interest in research, development and synthesis of new compounds having effect on P1- and P2- receptors that could help in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. This bachelor thesis will summarize the most recent knowledge on the role of the P2X7 receptor in these processes. This subtype of P2-receptor is unique because it is involved in the release of cytokines from immune cells and plays a role in the cell growth and apoptosis.

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