National Repository of Grey Literature 18 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Early morphogenesis of lower cheek teeth in mice with gene defects.
Lagronová, Svatava ; Peterková, Renata (advisor) ; Anděrová, Miroslava (referee) ; Buchtová, Marcela (referee)
Tooth number is reduced in humans and mice when compared to the presumed basic tooth formula in mammals. In the regions, where teeth had been suppressed during evolution, a supernumerary tooth can appear as a result of abnormal development. However development of a supernumerary tooth, as well as origin of other anomalies, cannot be directly investigated in human embryos. That is the development of a supernumerary tooth was studied in a mouse model of this anomaly. The aims of the thesis were focused to verifying the hypothesis: Development of the supernumerary tooth in mutant mice is based on the revitalization of the rudimentary primordia of the teeth suppressed during evolution. We compared the morphological and quantitative aspects of the developing epithelium of the largest rudimentary (premolar) tooth primordia, called MS and R2, in the mandibles of WT, Spry2-/- , Spry4-/- , Spry2-/- ;Spry4-/- and Tabby mutant mice. Similarly, the upper incisor in WT mice was analysed and compared to the development of the duplicated incisor in Spry2+/- ;Spry4-/- mutant mice. In comparison to controls, decreased cell apoptosis and increased cell proliferation together with an enlarged volume of the dental epithelium were found during rudimentary tooth development in Spry mutant mice. These changes showed the...
Embryotoxicity test of insulin-glucose interaction
Vobrová, Renata ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Peterková, Renata (referee)
Diabetes mellitus is heterogeneous group of diseases. Their common characteristic is failure of metabolism carbohydrate, fats and proteins which is caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin. A lack of insulin leads to the hyperglycemia. If diabetes is present, glucose and insulin, which physiologically occur in a body, are not in a balance. Pregnant women with diabetes have 7x - 10x higher risk of incidence offspring congenital malformations and there is also 2x - 5x higher risk of neonatal death compared to a population of healthy women. There have been disputes whether the teratogenic potential should be attributed to insulin, glucose, or whether the teratogenic effect of these substances increases through interaction. There is a question how much can maternal organism with diabetes disorder participate to the formation of congenital defects. The embryotoxic effects of insulin itself is not possible to study in the experiment on mammals, because it is not possible to distinguish the effect of the substance itself from the effects of disturbed metabolism of the maternal organism. The unique opportunity is to test the chicken embryo that develops outside the maternal organism. Therefore, we choose the aim of this thesis a test method CHEST (single application 2nd - 5th embryonal day) and a...
Effect of addictive drugs on prenatal development
Hofmannová, Oldřiška ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Peterková, Renata (referee)
Substance abuse is long-term worldwide problem. This thesis summarizes findings about the effects of stimulants, opiates and hallucinogens and focuses on the most commonly used illegal representatives of individual groups: cocaine, amphetamines, heroin and LSD. All these substances have negative effect on both mother and her fetus. Some of addictive substances can influence pregnancy and childbirth. There is also higher risk of fetus mortality and morbidity of the new born baby. Prenatal exposure to addictive substances could have influence on the birth weight, length, head circumference, its further growth and behavior. Some drugs can cause neonatal abstinent syndrome which can lead without prenatal care to death of newborn.
Developmental dynamic of vestigial tooth primordia and possibilities for its experimental influencing
Procházka, Jan ; Peterková, Renata (advisor) ; Černý, Robert (referee) ; Anděrová, Miroslava (referee)
Tooth development in the mouse embryo is an important model of developmental biology for studying not only odontogenesis, but also general organogenesis, and it also has considerable biomedical potential. Tooth shares many developmental features with other epithelial organs whose development initiates from budding of epithelium. The tooth is not only an isolated organ, but it is a part of the organ system - dentition. During dentition development, there is serial initiation of developing teeth. The presumed basic tooth formula in placental mammals comprised three incisors, one canine, four premolars and three molars. Dentition of rodents is already very derived being only formed by one continuously growing incisor and three molars in each dental quadrant. In place of missing teeth between the incisor and molars is a toothless region called diastema. During mouse embryonic development, it is possible to observe the initiation of development of rudimentary tooth primordia in both incisor area and in prospective diastema. In contrast to these morphological findings, the generally accepted assumption is that only the prospective functional incisor and the first molar (M1) develop during initial stages of mouse odontogenesis (ED 11-14) and, consequently, all the molecular signalling events are...
Proliferace a dynamika tkání během vývoje zubů a jim pribuzných patrových lišt
Rothová, Michaela ; Peterková, Renata (advisor) ; Matalová, Eva (referee) ; Černý, Robert (referee)
My PhD thesis has addressed specific questions regarding cell proliferation and tissue dynamics in three key areas of craniofacial development: during suppression and revitalization of tooth buds that develop in the mouse embryonic dentition as rudiments of lost premolars; during dental papilla and follicle formation of the first mouse molar; and during origin of palatal rugae on the mouse hard palate. By evaluation of cell proliferation, we recorded a change in the proliferation pattern along the cheek region of the mandible between less and more advanced embryos at embryonic day 13.5. Thus during the time period, when the development of the large mouse rudimental premolar primordium (R2) is stopped, we showed that the arrest of the rudiment R2 is caused by exhibiting low rate of cell proliferation and high rate of apoptosis. When Sprouty gene signalling is disrupted, the premolar primordium shows rates of proliferation and apoptosis similar to the growing first molar. The R2 subsequently revitalizes and develops into a supernumerary tooth in front of the first molar. Furthermore, we discovered that the dental mesenchyme is very dynamic tissue during bud and cap stages of tooth development and that the dental papilla of the first molar originates only from a restricted region of the dental...
Evolutionary and developmental aspects of dentition of squamate reptiles
Zahradníček, Oldřich ; Horáček, Ivan (advisor) ; Míšek, Ivan (referee) ; Peterková, Renata (referee)
EVOLUTIONARY AND DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF DENTITION OF SQUAMATE REPTILES Summary of the PhD. thesis Dentition and its evolutionary modifications played important roles during the radiation of reptiles. It is generally accepted that a plesiomorphic state for reptiles is represented by homodont, polyphyodont dentition with conical or cylindroconical teeth. However, in contrast to mammalian dentition which is the object of intensive research, reptilian dentition is studied only rarely. I therefore focused on developmental and evolutionary aspects of squamate dentition and used histological, immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods, computerised tomography, rentgenography and scanning electron microskopy. The goals of this work were as following: (a) to choose the model taxa representing squamate lineages relevant from a phylogenetic position as well as possessing dissimilar types of dental adaptations; (b) to evaluate using of these taxa as model species; (c) in these taxa describe basic odontogenic features. As a species with generalized dentition gecko Paroedura picta was chosen, the up coming reptilian model species with features also present in a wide spectrum of other lizards. I focused mainly on the developmental differences between teeth of the null and functional generations, development...
Early tooth development of Tabby mice
Smrčková, Lucie ; Peterková, Renata (advisor) ; Černý, Robert (referee)
The developing mouse dentition is a very useful tool to study molecular regulation of odontogenesis and also organogenesis. The embryonic mouse dentition comprises developing functional tooth primordia as well as rudimentary tooth primordia. These rudiments arrest their growth during development and either degenerate or become a part of a functional tooth. Mice with gene defects also allow elucidation of a function of genes, their products and signalling pathways. The protein ectodysplasin is essential for development of ectodermal derivatives - skin, hair, glands and teeth. The Tabby mice have a mutation in the Eda gene, which encodes the protein ectodysplasin, and they display a number of dentition anomalies. Early development of the lower jaw dentition in Tabby embryos has been already morphologically described. As a prerequisite for understanding regulatory mechanisms of odontogenesis in Tabby mice, it is also necessary to map the spatiotemporal dynamics of signalling centres that express Shh in both the rudimentary and functional tooth primordia. The aim of this thesis was to compare the signalling centres based on the Shh expression and its spatiotemporal dynamics in the lower jaw of Tabby and WT mouse embryos. Then the Shh data were correlated with known morphological data to clarify the...
Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism treatment during pregnancy and their consequences for the human foetus development.
Šípová, Drahoslava ; Peterka, Miroslav (advisor) ; Peterková, Renata (referee)
Hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and the autoimmune thyroid diseases are the basic disorders the diseases affecting the thyroid gland can be divided into. The causes of the thyroid disorders are assigned to the genetic background, environmental factors and too high or too low iodine intake. Various forms of thyroid disorders are very common among the large number of world population, more often seen among women compared to men, scale approximately 4:1. The attention is more paid to women because of their bigger predisposition to the thyroid diseases but also because of the persistance or new occurence of the diseases during the pregnancy. If the diagnosis is not retain early and no adequate treating follows, the proceeding disease will mainly in the first trimester negatively affect the developing baby. There are relatively big amount of the miscarriages, premature deliveries, stillbirths and babies with various degrees of somatic and intelectuall inflictions appearing. Within the frame of the treatment, in the case of thyroid hypofunction with levothyroxine and in the case of thyroid hyperfunction with propylthiouracile, carbimazole and methimazole, the smoothing of the thyroid disorders signs happens. After the delivery there is a risk of neonatal congenital disorders, whose cause is assigned to...

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