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Demographic revolution in developing countries with a special regards to Africa and Zimbabwe
Muza, Collet ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Fialová, Ludmila (referee) ; Pechholdová, Markéta (referee)
The demographic revolution in developing countries and Africa with special regards to Zimbabwe Abstract This dissertation aimed to examine the demographic revolution in developing countries, Africa and Zimbabwe. The decline of mortality and fertility everywhere in the world demonstrates the importance of the demographic revolution as a global process. While this universality was central to classic revolution theory, for many decades, it was questioned by demographers because fertility and mortality in Africa did not seem to follow the expected pathway. In sub-Saharan Africa the demographic revolution has been characterised by lagging, discontinuation and is occurring at a faster pace against low levels of socioeconomic development than observed in Europe, which has consequences for population dynamics. Questions have emerged if Africa is indeed different and a homogenous continent regarding demographic processes? However, empirical studies that have explored the unique demographic revolution starting from developing countries, Africa and Zimbabwe are lacking. The first part of the thesis on developing countries showed variations in the reaction of fertility to mortality decrease with historically small gaps and extended gaps in more recent revolutions, plus the much faster decrease in vital rates in many...
Sabó, Martin ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Pachlová, Tereza (referee)
The presented diploma thesis deals with the comparison of mortality structure by age and includes 194 member countries of the World Health Organization. The aim of the thesis is to confront mortality development in these countries with the help of individual mortality characteristics. At the beginning of this thesis are defined demographic terms and indicators, data sources and calculation methodology. The databases of the World Health Organization and the World Bank were used as the main source of data and all countries were divided into six world regions. The second chapter is devoted to selected types of mortality, namely neonatal and infant, under-five mortality, maternal mortality and adult mortality. After that, the work focuses on life expectancy of 0 and 60 years of age divided per sex. The last chapter is devoted to the optimum retirement age in selected countries. Conclusion connects of the all above well, and we can find there comprehensive information about difference of mortality practically all over the world.
Migration policy and its role in implementation of population development strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan
Saparbekova, Ainur ; Kocourková, Jiřina (advisor) ; Kalibová, Květa (referee) ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (referee)
Migration policy and its role in implementation of population development strategy of the Republic of Kazakhstan Abstract This work addresses the issues of migration policy and its role in population development of Kazakhstan. Migration and demographic development of the Republic of Kazakhstan had become prominent subjects of strategic policy under the new geopolitical reality and socio-economic development since the early 1990s. The intensive outflow of population during this period resulted in change of different quantitative as well as qualitative population characteristics. At the same time, the ethno-demographic disproportions maintained in the previous decades speeded up the "nation-building" process which was represented namely by policy on ethnic return migration. Thus, under these circumstances migration and demographic policies were placed among the priority issues of national security of the RK. In this contexts, the analysis presented in the submitted disseartion displays the effect of migration flows on demographic, socio- economic and ethnic composition of population. It considers the effect of policy measures on managing migration processes. The thesis finally analyzes the role of migration policy in demographic development of the country which has been closely connected with the strategic...
Demographic Approach in Measuring Human Capital of Kazakhstan
Narkulov, Murat ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Münich, Daniel (referee) ; Fiala, Tomáš (referee)
Demographic approach in measuring human capital of Kazakhstan Abstract This work is intended to provide reader with information about the value of human capital stock in Kazakhstan using well-known so-called education-based and lifetime labor income-based approaches. Author tries to research the reproduction model of human capital in conjunction with institutional factors in transition, such as socio-demographic, political and economic changes, historical development and the current level of human capital in KazakhstanThe main goal of this study is determination of main components of human capital development in Kazakhstan, especially from demographic viewpoint through the evaluations of modern reproduction of human capital in Kazakhstan. The results of estimations indicate that the human capital stock has significantly increased in Kazakhstan during the period studied (from 2003 to 2008) and that it surpass the value of physical capital in the country. The potential of human capital augmentation has been estimated as favorable for upcoming years in Kazakhstan. Key words: human capital, population quality, Kazakhstan, demography, working age-population, education.
Population development of Kazakhstan: Geographic, economic and geopolitical aspects
Rodionov, Viktor ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Kučera, Tomáš (referee) ; Kalibová, Květa (referee)
Population development of Kazakhstan: geographic, economic and geopolitical aspects Abstract Present research based on analysis of the main trends in demographic development of Kazakhstan at the national and regional level. Demographic changes are quite important factor affecting the problems of territorial, economic and geopolitical development of the country. Relatively small population quite clearly reflects the changes of economic and geopolitical conditions. The result of it is the changes in population size, structure, and geographical pattern. Over the past decade in Kazakhstan observed population growth and change of ethnic structure. Against this background, distribution of the population within the country becomes one of the key problems in Kazakhstan. The main reason is growing disproportions in economic development of regions. Quite significant role here plays the ethnic heterogeneity of the regions, which also determines the nature of population development. Under such conditions, the demographic development acquires strategic importance.
Population Development of Countries after Demographic Revolution
Vítková, Lucie ; Pavlík, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Fialová, Ludmila (referee) ; Langhamrová, Jitka (referee)
Lucie Vítková: Populační vývoj zemí po demografické revoluci Abstract The aim of the thesis is an analysis of main features of population development in developed countries and a question whether there is homogeneity of population development. Demographic revolution is a qualitative change from extensive to intensive character of demographic reproduction and it is a subject to modernization. Countries which are understood not only as demographically developed ones but also as economically developed has been taken as an object of this thesis. These countries finished demographic revolution at the latest in the middle of the 20th century. This period has been used as a starting point for most analysis which has been carried out. Demographic reproduction is a process determined by biological and social factors. Human reproduction takes place in relatively stable limits, which lead to its homogenization. The importance of social conditionality has grown during demographic revolution, social aspects are the cause of their development changes and specific features, same social conditions lead to homogenization. Presumption of different features of population development as consequence of different conditions in former Eastern and Western countries has been confirmed not only in individual main demographic indexes...

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