National Repository of Grey Literature 45 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Vacuolar proteins in development of yeast colonies
Trubitsyna, Yana ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Heidingsfeld, Olga (referee)
The laboratory strains of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae form colonies which can differentiate into two main cell subpopulations. U and L cells demonstrate different morphology, metabolism and stress-resistance. It was also proved that some of metabolic pathways in U cells are a similar to ones in tumor cells. The unique metabolism is activated in U cells; the TORC1 is active in these cells together with autophagy and glycogen accumulation, which are characteristic for cells with inactivated TORC1. CORVET and HOPS complexes together with vacuolar ATPase are involved in processes related to vacuolar fusion and trafficking. Also, these complexes contribute to the regulation of TORC1 activity. Vam6p is a subunit of HOPS complex and it is also involved in regulation of TORC1 acting as GEF for Gtr1p GTPase, which activates TORC1. The aim of this study was to outline whether selected subunits of mentioned complexes affect TORC1 activity in U cells. Further aim was to confirm the effect of Vam6p on selected proteins production. These proteins were chosen based on results of proteomic analysis performed in our laboratory. In order to investigate possible effects of proteins of interest absence on colonies' morphology, strains deleted in selected genes were prepared (VPS3, VPS8, VPS33, VPS41, VPH2, VAC7 a...
Comparison of specific expression in bacterial and yeast biofilms
Kicko, Peter ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee)
The development and maintenance of biofilm is a complex process that is based on a change in genetic expression. The biofilm formation is observed in some prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. During its formation, cell aggregation occurs, extracellular matrix is created and we observe the formation of metabolically differentiable cells, often with increased resistance to antimicrobial drugs. This work focuses on important steps leading to biofilm formation associated with specific gene expression and highlights the similar and different processes between bacterial and yeast cells. The work begins by comparison of cell signalling, it continues by comparing the expression of the adhesive proteins and extracellular enzymes, synthesis of exopolysaccharides, formation of extracellular nucleic acid, and in the last chapter we focused on the formation of persistors. The aim of this work is to connect the acquired information and to contribute to the understanding the complexity of this process. Key words: biofilm, signalling, adhesins, exopolysaccharides, extracellular nucleic acid, persistor
Regulation of yeast chronological ageing
Némethová, Ema ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Motlová, Lucia (referee)
Yeast cells are able to differentiate during chronological aging and form different cell- types which acquire different viability. Chronological aging cells do not divide and thus mimic the aging of cells within multicellular organisms, such as mammals. Understanding of mechanisms of chronological aging of yeasts thus could help to understand similar processes of more complex organisms. Two types of cells, called "quiescent" and "non- quiescent" cells, are formed when yeast are grown in liquid medium. These cells have different morphology and gene expression and also differ in their metabolism. Yeast cells within agar-plate-grown colonies can sense different gradients of nutrients and signaling compounds and diversify to different cell types such as U and L cells, located in different colony regions. Both the "quiescent" and U cells are more vital and able to proliferate, whereas "non-quiescent" and L cells are less viable and exhibit stress features. Chronological aging involves many cellular processes including accumulation of storage compounds, mitochondrial activity, functions of specific genes and can be affected by calorie restriction and mild stress. Key words: chronological aging, yeast, differenciation of cell populations, metabolic change
Inducible promoters and their use in yeast cell manipulation
Přibáňová, Gabriela ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Vopálenský, Václav (referee)
Promoters which can be regulated by different chemical or physical factors are often used in cell manipulations. This thesis focuses predominantly on promoter systems which use light as an inductor. There are two main approaches to controlling a promoter by light. The first one uses so-called "caged molecules", chemical inducers whose inducing activity is "masked" by a photolabile protecting group. The second approach includes optogenetic systems, which can regulate transcription in cells. These systems are encoded in the DNA of the organism, and light is the only external regulatory stimulus. Photoreceptors that need a specific cofactor (chromophore) are the main components of optogenetic systems. There are several groups of photoreceptors classified by the type of chromophore and photoactivation mechanism. This thesis gives an overview of optogenetic systems used for transcription regulation and focuses on different photoreceptors and induction mechanism used. The systems using photocaged molecules are described as well. Furthermore, the thesis deals with light- systems in yeast as a model organism as well as organism used for biotechnological purposes. Finally, some limitations of light inducible promoters are discussed, including the chromophore type, the wavelength of the light, and the...
Yeast colonies as a model of multicellular behaviour of microorganisms
Kuthan, Martin ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Hašek, Jiří (referee) ; Kolarov, Jordan (referee)
- 32 - Závěr Již v úvodu jsem se zmínil, že mnohé laboratorní kmeny kvasinek ztratili vlivem domestikace schopnost filamentálního růstu. Ukázkovým příkladem cílené domestikace je laboratorní kmen S288C. Historie vzniku tohoto kmene je zajímavá a dokumentuje výrazný vliv genetiků na jeho vlastnosti. Velké množství kmenů S. cerevisiae používaných v laboratořích má společného předka kterým je kmen EM93. Tento diploidní kmen izoloval v Kalifornii v roce 1938 Emil Mrak z hnijícího fíku (MORTIMER and JOHNSTON 1986). Není však jasné, zda se jednalo o přirozenou mikroflóru fíků, nebo o kontaminaci komerčními pekařskými či kvasnými kmeny. Kmen EM93 je heterothalický a je schopen filamentálního růstu (LIU et al. 1996). Pro laboratorní účely ale nebyl úplně ʺpohodlnýʺ. Protože tvorba shluků buněk brání izolaci klonů vzniklých z jediné buňky a ztěžuje přesné určení počtu buněk v tekutých kulturách, snažili se genetici získat prototrofní kmen s neadherujícími, dobře resuspendovatelnými buňkami. Mnohonásobným křížením haploidních segregantů kmene EM93 s dalšími laboratorními kmeny a komerčními pekařskými kmeny vytvořil Robert Mortimer kmen S288C, jehož 90 % genomu pochází...
TORC1 pathway regulators in yeast cells
Trubitsyna, Yana ; Palková, Zdena (advisor) ; Mašek, Tomáš (referee)
TORC1 ("Target Of Rapamycin") is highly conserved serine-threonine kinase that regulates cell growth, metabolism, proliferation and apoptosis. Some of the regulators and mechanisms of regulation of TORC1 activity are conserved in different eukaryotic organisms. In mammalian cells mTORC1 ("mammalian Target Of Rapamycin") is present that is homologous to yeast TORC1. The correct regulation of TORC1 activity is required for vitality of organisms and thus TORC1 and its regulations are investigated by many researches. A mutation in a single protein that is a part of TORC1 regulating complexes may result in a serious damage to the cell and to the organism. This thesis aims to describe the known TORC1 regulators in yeast and, in some cases, to compare TORC1 and mTORC1 regulations. Information on mTORC1 regulations that have not yet been identified in budding yeasts is also included. Keywords - TORC1, mTORC1, regulation, activity, yeast

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