National Repository of Grey Literature 36 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Descartes' Mechanistic Physiology and Harvey's Discovery of the Circulation of Blood
Čejka, Vojtěch ; Hill, James (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to show in what way the mechanistic philosophy of René Descartes allowed him to accept William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of the blood, while at the same time prevented him from accepting his explanation of the movement of the heart. In the introductory section we mention some of the basic notions concerning the state of natural philosophy in the second half of the 16th century which are closely related to the themes of the thesis. Both authors we are concerned with are also presented. The second, historicaly oriented section focuses on Aristotle's, Galen's and Harvey's opinions on the role and motion of the heart and blood in the human body. The aim is to describe how Harvey's 1628 treatise De motu cordis allowed to resolve the proliferating problems faced by the Galenist tradition in the 16th and the early 17th century. The third section presents the exposition of the introductory chapters of Descartes' 1633 treatise Le Monde in which he introduces the basic notions of his new mechanistic philosophy. Among these are the three types of particles, the plenist conception of the world, the omnipresence of circular motions and the relationship between God, natural laws and motion in the world. The fourth section is dedicated to Descartes' a Harvey's point of...
Secret nature of reality - Humean approach
Fršlínek, Jan ; Palkoska, Jan (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
This thesis enquires into the question of the hidden nature of things and reality in the context of David Hume's philosophy. In the context of a Humean approach to reality, it discusses whether the things which we perceive and which are considered to be perceptions can have some sort of non-empirical correlation that lies beneath them and whether it can be called the hidden nature of these things. The first half of the thesis is focused on the philosophy of David Hume. In the second half of the thesis two original considerations about the hidden nature and its characteristics are presented. The thesis starts with three selected theories of substance as presented in A Treatise of Human Nature. The theory of John Locke and the theory of the peripatetics are presented from Hume's critical perspective. Consequently is presented an interpretation called the New Hume. In the context of this interpretation, Hume presumes that there are hidden entities lying beneath empirical reality. Then, there are two considerations focused on the hidden nature of things and its characteristics which are presented. These characteristics are consequently being described in an indirect manner. And finally an original suggestion of how to understand the hidden nature is presented. It has the character of mere...
Subjective character of experience: What is it like to be a conscious agent?
Kožíšek, Jakub ; Hill, James (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
In his article What is it like to be a bat? Thomas Nagel defines consciousness by subjective character of experience. An organism is conscious if there is something that it is like to be that organism. Science describes the world objectively, from the third person perspective. That is the reason why it fails to cope with consciousness - it misses the subjective character of experience. In spite of that, Nagel proposes a new method for studying subjectivity of consciousness, which he calls "objective phenomenology". In my thesis, I want to find out if Daniel Dennett's heterophenomenology is or could be that method. Key words: Nagel, Dennett, consciousness, subjective character of experience, heterophenomenology.
Structure and Simplicity in Leibniz
Veselský, Matěj ; Palkoska, Jan (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
The thesis aims to present Leibniz's monadic system as the simplest conceivable structure. To this end, the thesis employs both contemporary literature concerned with formal ontology and its logic, semantics and the nature of reference; and Leibniz's own writings coupled with correspondent commentaries, including articles transcending selected interpretive issues into present-day discussions on actualised versions of one of the essential Leibnizian principles: the identity of indiscernibles. The exposition proceeds in three steps: (i) developing concepts of structure, determination and reference in critical confrontation with contemporary approaches, then (ii) applying those concepts to the interpretation of Leibniz's principle of identity of indiscenibles and illuminating therewith links between ontology and semantics, and eventually (iii) utilizing those findings in clarifying the mirroring relation constitutive of the monadic structure as represented a) in Leibniz's own spatiotemporal illustrations and b) in formal models in secondary literature. Acknowledging that the simplest conceivable structure, which is the monadic structure, can neither be satisfactorily expressed by spatiotemporal illustrations, nor can it be represented in formal system, itself forming the limit of extrinsic...
Deism in England: Matthew Tindal's Christianity As Old As the Creation
Šolcová, Ludmila ; Hill, James (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with the phenomenon of English deism at the turn of the 17th and 18th centuries from the perspective of its rejection of the authority of external revelation. Deism can be briefly defined as an attempt to base religion only on the internal revelation, i.e. the rational knowledge. This thesis firstly presents the historical circumstances of this movement; further it gives an analysis of the relation between internal and external revelation as offered in Matthew Tindal's Christianity as old as the creation (1730) External revelation, according to Tindal, should be subjected to the internal revelation, i. e. the rational knowledge. Tindal derives this view from the perfection of his Religion of Nature, to which nothing needs to be added. Finally, Tindal's argumentation is questioned, and it is shown that it requires an essential revision.
Human Corporeality in the Philosophy of George Berkeley
Špinka, František ; Hill, James (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
George Berkeley is an immaterialist. He conceives the material substance as an unnecessary and internally contradictory concept. Therefore, he posits monism of the spiritual substance. Nevertheless, he does not deny that the physical world, and the human body with it, is in some sense real and existing. It is not a mere illusion. This thesis attempts to show two things. First, that Berkeley believes the human body is real and that it is an idea or, more precisely, a collection of ideas which is, with its existence, dependent on the activity of spiritual substances. Secondly, that Berkeley differentiates this body from other ideas and objects in the physical world by connecting it more intimately to the human nature, which is primarily constituted by the finite spiritual substantiality. This thesis, however, also reveals that the topic of the human corporeality, especially in regard to his spiritual monism, is insufficiently thought through by Berkeley. Keywords: George Berkeley, immaterialism, human corporeality, human body, limited spiritual substances
Being One Only: The Foundations of Spinoza's Ontology
Vašíček, Jan ; Palkoska, Jan (advisor) ; Hill, James (referee)
The subject of this paper is an analysis of the fundamental principles of Spinoza's ontology, as presented primarily in the first book of Ethics. There is a parallel effort to outline a conceptual scheme, which could render this ontology in a well arranged manner. The heart of the text consists in a study of some of the important metaphysical categories, that define the space of Spinoza's substantial ontology. Namely the concepts of quantity and difference, existence and causality, immanence and finiteness. These categories represent somewhat generalised line of argumentation, in the course of which some of the traditional problems of the research in Spinoza's metaphysics will be covered. For example, the problem of shared attribute or the question of the substance-attribute relation. In the final part this will lead to an interpretation, based on the previous findings, of how nature follows from God and relates to him. 1
Methodology of the mind-body problem in Bergson's Matter and Memory
Vališka, Tomáš ; Palkoska, Jan (advisor) ; Čapek, Jakub (referee)
Bergson's Matter and Memory presents original conception of perception which is developed on the grounds of dualistic ontology. So, Bergson's solution to mind-body problem is not an attempt to explain it as an isolated phenomenon, it is rather ambitious project which puts perception into world where the order of perception and the order of mathematical science coexist. In this dissertation, I will try to determine methods which govern solutions to problems of Matter and Memory. I will also deal with Time and Free Will in outline.
The Rule-Following Paradox
Samčík, Jozef ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
This bachelor thesis is focused on a paradox which is mentioned by Wittgenstein in the §201 of the Philosophical Investigations. This paradox states: depending on interpretation, every course of action can be made out to accord or to conflict with a given rule. Kripke calls this problem the rule-following paradox and considers it to be the central problem of the Philosophical Investigations. Firstly I will explore a role that the term "rule" plays in a broader context of Wittgenstein's approach to language. I will argue that "obeying the rule" has a key role in understanding the concept of meaning. Next I will give an account of the rule-following paradox as it is presented by Kripke. Then I will describe impact of the paradox on various concepts of meaning. Lastly I will compare and evaluate Kripke's and McDowell's interpretations of the solution of the rule-following paradox offered by Wittgenstein. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Rorty and Davidson on Truth
Šulcová, Kristýna ; Kolman, Vojtěch (advisor) ; Palkoska, Jan (referee)
(in English): Richard Rorty and Donald Davidson are (at least verbally) in agreement on many essential topics in the philosophy of language, including their rebuttal of the correspondence theory of truth, the impossibility to define truth and the untenability of both the scheme-content distinction and the dichotomy between realism and anti-realism. Yet substantial differences remain, as represented especially by Davidson's insistence on the importance of objective truth and by Rorty's idiosyncratic pragmatism. The task of this thesis is to identify Rorty and Davidson's mutual differences more precisely and find out whether their philosophical projects might in the end prove compatible or if, on the contrary, their broad agreement is only apparent. With this end in view, the thesis traces the concept of truth in the hands of both philosophers with a special focus on Davidson's concept of objective truth. I conclude that Rorty systematically misinterprets Davidson as far as the latter concept is concerned. However, as both Davidson and Rorty remain hostile to treating truth as a normative concept, this need not mean that their views are completely incompatible.

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