National Repository of Grey Literature 5 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The influence of drugs on prenatal and postnatal development of humans and model organisms.
Adamusová, Tereza ; Hejnová, Lucie (advisor) ; Pačesová, Dominika (referee)
The aim of this bachelors thesis is to summarize the consequences of using opioid substances on a developing organism. This work contains the issues of using illicit drugs heroin and morphine as well as using opioid analgetics and replacement medication during the Opioid Maintenance Treatment, such as buprenorphine or methadon. Examined topics are the characteristis of opioid substances, their metablism and processes by which they affect the organism. In the following parts the thesis describes specific developmental defects, that can be found as a consequence of using opioids.
The role of astrocytes in the formation of brain edema
Heřmanová, Zuzana ; Anděrová, Miroslava (advisor) ; Pačesová, Dominika (referee)
Brain edema is a cause of mortality accompanying number of pathologies such as ischemia, traumatic brain injury, tumors or liver and kidney failure. It is described as a process of osmotic and water flux alterations, which lead to cell volume changes and to an increase in intracranial pressure. Brain edema is usually classified into two types: vasogenic and cytotoxic. Development of vasogenic edema is connected to the blood brain barrier disruption. Water accumulates in the extracellular space and exerts pressure on the cellular compartments of the tissue. The cytotoxic type of edema is characterized by water accumulation within the cells. The process of cellular volume enlargement is termed cellular swelling. Cytotoxic swelling is usually connected to glial cells, namely astrocytes, as these cells represent a part of the blood brain barrier and thus they influence homeostasis inside the brain. Water flows across cytoplasmic membrane through a system of specialized channels - aquaporins. For the brain edema formation, aquaporin 4 is the most important. It is localized on astrocytic membranes and using aquaporin-null mice, it has been shown, that it participates in water clearance in physiological and pathological conditions. Since the water fluxes are passive, the driving force for edema formation...
Physiological effects of amphetamines and molecular mechanisms of their action
Vyvadilová, Jitka ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Pačesová, Dominika (referee)
Amphetamines are psychostimulants acting on the central nervous system, which produce a feeling of increased energy, euphoria and blissful feeling. The use of these drugs has many physiological effects such as nausea, increased bood pressure and heart rate, vomiting, abdominal cramps, arousal and alertness, hyperactivity and many others. Amphetamines produce their effects by acting on the monoamine transmission system in certain areas of the brain, especially in the ventral tegmental area and the nucleus accumbens. Amphetamines may affect monoamine transporters localized in the plasma membrane, vesicular monoamine transporters and various receptors. Effects of amphetamines also have practical use in the treatment of certain disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but chronic overactivation of the system and triggering signaling cascades in neurons may induce a number of changes at the celluar and molecular levels, that underlie the development of a state of addiction on these drugs. This has a lot of other health and social negative impacts on the drug users. Keywords: amphetamine, physiological effects, monoaminergic system, addiction
Circadian system of SHR rats
Pačesová, Dominika ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Švandová, Ivana (referee)
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) harbor the master circadian pacemaker in mammals which is responsible for control and coordination of circadian rhythms throughout the body and ensure optimal functioning of the organism in variable external conditions. The SCN is a heterogeneous structure in its morphology and function. The present thesis focuses on comparison of the SCN and its properties in an animal model of pathological hypertension, i.e. in spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), and nonpathological normotensive Wistar rat. To determine selected morphological and functional markers in the SCN between both rat strains, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry methods were used. To compare functional properties of the SCN of SHR and Wistar rat, the effect of light pulses on the expression of c-fos and Per1 genes as well as on locomotor activity were studied in both strains. Our results suggest morphological differences in the number of neurons and in the expression of Avp a Vip in the SCN with an apparent tendencies to higher levels of the studied peptides in SHR compared to Wistar rat. Our data further indicate variation in functioning of the SCN in SHR and Wistar rat on the basis of different responses to light pulses administered in the first part of the subjective night, namely in the...
Suprachiasmatic nuclei as a daily clock and calendar
Pačesová, Dominika ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
The suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) harbor the master circadian pacemaker in mammals which is responsible for control and coordination of circadian rhythms throughout the body. They are a paired structure in the hypothalamus, located just above the optic chiasm, consisting of approximately 20 000 neurons. Due to their specific properties, the SCN have a unique position within the circadian system. They are connected with retina and, therefore, they can directly receive information about changes in external light/dark cycle. The individual SCN neurons are independent autonomous circadian oscillators which are inter-connected in a communication network. This network allows the individual SCN oscillators to synchronize among each other and thus to increase the precision and robustness of the oscillations. This work is focused to summarize the knowledge on the structure and function of the SCN at the level of single cells, subpopulations of cells and the whole SCN. The specific goal of this work is a summary of the factors that determine their central role within the circadian system.

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