National Repository of Grey Literature 16 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
NK cells and KIR receptors: their importance in haematopoietic stem cell transplantations in leukemia
Ledvinková, Anna ; Vraná, Milena (advisor) ; Pačes, Jan (referee)
NK cells and KIR receptors: their importance in haematopoietic stem cell transplantations in leukemia Abstract This bachelor thesis discusses the importance of NK (natural-killer) cells in leukemias. It focuses on the structure and reactivity of NK cells, and especially on transmembrane KIR receptors (killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors) of NK cells, that play an important role in the elimination of leukemic cells (graft-versus leukemia reaction, GvL) and thus in the overall prognosis of the disease. Activation and inhibitory receptors of KIR, by their cooperation, control the cytotoxic activity of NK cells. Thus, the typing of KIR receptor genes in hematopoietic stem cell donors can predict treatment success. KIR genes examination is mainly used in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia. Keywords: KIR receptor, NK cells, haematopoietic stem cell transplantation, HSCT, leukemia, donor, recipient
The role of the cellular prion protein in the cells of the immune system
Havlík, Martin ; Holada, Karel (advisor) ; Pačes, Jan (referee) ; Pačes, Jan (referee)
Prion protein (PrPC) is connected with the origin of transmissive spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), fatal diseases that are on the molecular level based on the conversion of the cellular form of prion protein, PrPC, into the infectious form, PrPTSE. This isoform, exhibiting increased resistance against proteases and common decontamination methods, accumulates in tissues and causes degenerative damages of the central nervous system. Potential physiological function of PrPC in cells remains unclear, though many efforts have been focused on this research area in past years. Expression of PrPC was detected especially in neurons, high levels of PrPC are also present in different types of cells of immune system. Whereas some immunocompetent cells were widely examined, the relationship of PrPC with the function of others was not studied. PrPC probably plays a role in differentiation and activation of some immune cells, participates in regulation of cytokine production and other immune processes, affects grow of CD4+ T-cell population and also takes a part in formation of secondary lymphatic organs. This bachelor thesis is focused on summarization of existing knowledge describing the role of the cellular prion protein in cells of immune system, which is important also from the point of view of diagnosis...
Gene order in eukaryotic genomes: an analysis using sequence-based gene expression data
Divina, Petr ; Forejt, Jiří (advisor) ; Pačes, Jan (referee) ; Mokrejš, Martin (referee)
ZÁVĚRY 61 6. ZÁVĚRY 6.1. Analýza genů exprimovaných v myším varleti a jejich uspořádání v genomu Pomocí expresního profilování metodou SAGE (sériová analýza genové exprese) byl vytvořen katalog genů exprimovaných ve varleti dospělých myší. Byly identifikovány poziční klastry genů na chromosomech obsahující geny s preferenční expresí ve varleti. Tyto klastry obsahovaly signifikantně vyšší počet genů než v náhodně vygenerovaných genomech. Geny specificky exprimované v somatických buňkách myšího varlete byly signifikantně obohacené na chromosomu X, což podporuje teorii o hromadění genů preferenčně exprimovaných v samčích tkáních na chromosomu X. Geny exprimované z chromosomu X byly ochuzené v transkriptomu celého myšího varlete, což je v souladu s představou o inaktivaci chromosomu X během prvního meiotického dělení. Byla vytvořena veřejně přístupná internetová databáze Mouse SAGE Site, která shromažďuje expresní data z myších tkání a buněčných liniích vytvořená pomocí metody SAGE. 6.2. Genový obsah chromosomu Z kura domácího Chromosom Z kura domácího byl signifikantně obohacený o geny preferenčně exprimované v samčím mozku. ZÁVĚRY 62 Geny s preferenční expresí v samičím mozku vykazovaly náznak ochuzení na chromosomu Z. Podobně, geny specificky exprimované ve vaječnících byly na chromosomu Z...
Metagenomic profiling of microbial consortia
Rídl, Jakub ; Pačes, Jan (advisor) ; Krásný, Libor (referee) ; Novák, Petr (referee)
Methods of molecular biology enable studies on microbial diversity based on analysis of genes encoding processes and biochemical pathways of individual microorganisms and also complete microbial consortia. For this a crucial step was elaboration of new technologies of high-throughput DNA sequencing. These methods made it possible to advance studies of diversity from analysis of genomes of model microorganisms easily cultivated in laboratories to simple communities living in extreme environments and further to complex microbial consortia. This experimental approach is based on metagenomic analyses. Important are studies on ecosystems negatively affected by human activity where microorganisms not only survive but they can convert their metabolism to degrade compounds toxic for higher organisms. An example is bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8 isolated form soils contaminated by toxic chlorobenzoates. Sequencing and analysis of Achromobacter xylosoxidans A8 genome made it possible to study genes coding for enzymes that are involved in chlorobenzoates degradation in the context of the complete genetic background. An interesting microbial biofilm - gelatinous stalactites - was discovered in an extremely acidic environment of the abandoned mine in Zlaté Hory (the Czech Republic). It is formed by a simple...
Characterization of the distribution and dynamics of the antigen-presenting cells using MHC II-EGFP knock-in mouse model
Pačes, Jan ; Černý, Jan (advisor) ; Tlaskalová - Hogenová, Helena (referee)
Results of recent studies indicate that dendritic cells are capable of transporting commensal intestinal bacteria into the mammary glands, which ultimately leads to their occurrence in breast milk. We have therefore decided to evaluate the phenotype of immunologically relevant antigen presenting cells (APCs) present in the mammary glands and the small intestine, respectively and perform a comparison study. We also studied plasticity of these populations during lactation. In situ immunodetection and flow cytometry methods were used to determine phenotype. We succeeded in optimising the methods for preparation of samples for flow cytometry and microscopy. We thoroughly tested protocols for 3D visualisation of APC populations and quantitative image analysis for correlation with flow cytometry, further optimization is nevertheless needed. We found out that during lactation large numbers of MHC II+ cells cluster around the alveoli and milk ducts. These cells are of a distinctly dendritic shape and their phenotype does not correspond to the APCs in the surrounding tissue. A pronounced increase of APC cells in the mammary glands between the fourth and sixth days of lactation was observed, with the majority of these cells expressing the CD103 antigen typical for cell populations of immune cells of the...
Endogenous retroviral elements and their functions in the human genome
Famfulíková, Mirka ; Pačes, Jan (advisor) ; Lichá, Irena (referee)
In addition to the coding sequences, the human genome contains a so noncoding DNA, among which we count transposable elements capable of transposition in the genome. The remnants of the past retrovirus infections - endogenous retroviruses (human endogenous retroviruses - HERVs) belong to the transposable elements, which contain the LTR sequences. Human endogenous retroviruses make up to 8% of the size of the human genome. The retroviruses are not only passive relicts, but they have gained some key functions - too. They increase the plasticity of the human genome and some HERV LTRs can serve as binding sites for transcription factors like. Env protein from the families HERV-W and HERV- FRD were coopted by the human genome and are nowadays expressed as proteins Syncitin-1 and Syncitin-2, which are necessary by the forming of human placenta. Unfortunately, the HERV elements can have a negative health impacts. In the last decades they are subject of a debate in connection with various diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, HIV proliferation and some types of tumorigenesis. The role of HERVs in the human genome is not completely known yet and it is important to continue with their research. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Current methods of genome analysis and their use in identification of genetic determinants of human diseases
Stránecký, Viktor ; Kmoch, Stanislav (advisor) ; Kleibl, Zdeněk (referee) ; Pačes, Jan (referee)
The study of rare genetic diseases presents unique opportunity to uncover the genetic and molecular basis of human traits and greatly helped to the identification of genes, to the elucidation of their function and to the characterization of metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Over the past decades, linkage analysis has been appropriate approach to search for the genes causing Mendelian diseases and contributed to the identification of many genes, but the genetic cause of many diseases remains unknown. New methods of studying the human genome, microarray technology and massively parallel sequencing (next generation sequencing), represent a way to efficiently identify the cause of genetically determined diseases, based on direct observation of mutations in the genome of affected individuals. These techniques replaced the traditional method of disease gene identification represented by linkage analysis and sequencing of candidate genes and have become the standard approach to elucidate the molecular basis of diseases. In this work, i describe the the results achieved by using these methods - identification of the genes underlying mucopolysacharidosis type IIIC, isolated defect of ATP synthase, Rotor syndrome, autosomal dominat ANCL and GAPO syndrome.
Bacterial REP elements: origins, variability and application.
Nunvář, Jaroslav ; Lichá, Irena (advisor) ; Pačes, Jan (referee) ; Melter, Oto (referee)
4 ABSTRACT (English) This thesis is based on three published research papers studying bacterial REP (repetitive extragenic palindrome) elements. REP elements are one of the best-characterized groups of bacterial DNA repeats, distributed mostly in gammaproteobacteria, including enterobacteria. They are present in noncoding parts of host genomes, usually occurring in hundreds of copies. REPs are typically aggregated in higher order repeats. In the Gram-negative model Escherichia coli, interactions of several proteins important for cell's physiology with REPs were described, indicating significant role for these elements for host cells. The first work (Nunvar et al. 2010) presents the discovery of a protein class, related to IS200/IS605 transposases. These proteins, termed RAYTs (REP-associated tyrosine transposases), contain characteristic motifs in their amino acid sequences, which are absent in canonical IS200/IS605 transposases. Another attribute of RAYTs is the arrangement of their encoding genes. These are single copy genes, always flanked at both termini by at least two REPs in inverted orientation. Based on the similarity between the REP-rayt-REP unit and insertion sequences of the IS200/IS605 family, between RAYTs and tyrosine transposases and between REPs and subterminal sequences of the IS200/IS605...
Návrh Real-Time PCR testu pro detekci Aphibiocystidium ranae jako modelového druhu pro studium rhinosporidiózy
Přistoupilová, Anna ; Pačes, Jan (advisor) ; Vopálenský, Pavel (referee)
The aim of this thesis is to develop species-specific Real-Time PCR assay for detection of frog parasite Amphibiocystidium ranae as a model approach for studying rhinosporidiosis in human, caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Similarities of these parasites allow to study human rhinosporidiosis by analogy. Sequences of the gene for 18S rRNA of Amphibiocystidium ranae were analysed by multiple sequence alignment with sequences of closely related organisms found in GenBank nucleotide database. Amphibiocystidium ranae-specific regions were found and three primer sets were designed, two of them together with probe to increase specificity. Specificity was checked against GenBank nucleotide database and ribosomal RNA database SILVA. Primer sets were tested on samples taken from frogs. Specificity was confirmed by melting curve analysis. Amphibiocystidium ranae-specific Real-Time PCR assay was developed and can be used for detection of this parasite.

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