National Repository of Grey Literature 30 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Sulfation and desulfation of neuroactive steroids in normal and neoplastic primate brain tissues
Kříž, Lubomír ; Hampl, Richard (advisor) ; Lapčík, Oldřich (referee) ; Pácha, Jiří (referee)
A novel methodology for the determination of steroid sulfatase (STS) and sulfotransferase (SULT) activities in primate brain tissue have been developed and evaluated. STS activity determination was based on enzyme assay followed by liquid-liquid extraction ofthe reaction product, its subsequent derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Indirect determination including product hydrolysis and determination by radioimmunoassay was used for assessment of SULT activity. For both, STS and SULT assays, optimal reaction conditions were found while strong structure-activity relationships for both enzyme activities were observed. Additionally, so far unidentified high-substrate inhibition for STS was revealed wíth a hypothesis suggesting its physiotogícal relevance' Determinations of STS and SULT activities in monkey brain regions revealed differences between genders and brain regions. Due to low number of samples, significance was not described. For STS kinetic characteristics were determined. In human brain tumors, STS and SULT activities showed highly significant differences according to diagnoses. Furthermore, tendency to cluster formation with respect to both enzyme activities emerged. It indicated specific metabolic characteristics especially for glioblastomas considered as the...
Effect of microbiota on the activity of HPA axis
Fajstová, Alena ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Telenský, Petr (referee)
Recent research shows, that gut microbiome can influence various functions of the organism and is able to communicate with the brain. The data also show that changes in the composition of gut microbiome can influence behavior and stress reactions and vice versa, psychological state of the organism can cause changes in gut microbiome. The aim of this master's thesis was to examine changes of HPA activation and local metabolism of glucocorticoids caused by stress in the presence or absence of gut microbiome. We therefore used germ-free mice and studied the effect of stress in pituitary, adrenal gland, colon and spleen. We found that, stress has different impact on gene expression in adrenal gland, colon and spleen in the presence or absence of gut microbiome. In contrast, there wasn't any significant effect of stress on pituitary in germ free mice and their conventionaly colonized counterparts.
Interactions between gut microorganisms and brain
Fajstová, Alena ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Hock, Miroslav (referee)
Intestinal microbiota communicates with brain via various cooperating pathways including neuronal, endocrine and immune. Pathogenic and commensal bacteria produce great amounts of neurotransmitters and various other metabolites which can interact with brain. Presence of bacteria can also induce immune system response which can influence brain through cytokines and other mediators. Last but not least the communication can be mediated through nerves, especially the vagus nerve. The brain can influence the intestines through sympathic and parasympathic efferent nerves and through hormones. Gut colonization by nonpathogenic commensal bacteria is crucial for proper brain development. If this doesn't happen in certain period psychiatric disorders such as depression or autism can occur later in life. Various pathological conditions might be ameliorated or fully reversed by administration of probiotic bacteria. Aim of this thesis is to briefly review factors influencing gut microbiota, its influence on the brain development and the role of probiotics in the therapy of intestinal and psychiatric diseases. Keywords: gut microbiome, brain, neuroendocrine regulation, probiotic, neurotransmitter
CIrcadian regulation of miRNA and clock-controlled genes in tumorigenesis
Balounová, Kateřina ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee)
The circadian clock generates circadian rhythms, which participate on regulation of a number of signalling pathways. Disruption of the circadian regulatory mechanism is linked to a development and a progression of certain types of cancer including colorectal tumorigenesis. Progression of tumorigenesis depends on the cell cycle machinery related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. MiRNAs play a role in initiation and progression of tumorigenesis because they interfere in regulatory pathways associated with tumorigenesis. The aim of the thesis was to determinate existence of circadian rhytms in clock controlled genes (Tef, Dbp), miRNAs (miR-1-3p, miR-16-5p, miR-34a-5p, miR-155-5p, miR-192-3p) and genes of the cell cycle machinery (Ccnd1, Ccne1, Ccna1, Ccnb1) and apoptosis (Casp3, Bcl2, Bad). Further, to compare detected circadian rhythms during aging and neoplastic transformation of colon by quantitative RT-PCR. We have observed circadian expression of Tef, Dbp, Ccne1, Ccna1, Ccnb1, Casp3 and Bcl2 in young mice colon, Tef, Dbp, miR-1-3p, Ccne1, Ccna1 in old mice colon and Tef and Dbp in colorectal tumors. In summary, circadian expression of clock controlled genes varied but was maintained in mice colorectal tumors. In aging we demonstrated weakening of circadian rhythms of the genes of the cell...
Role of intestinal circadian clock in epithelial transport, proliferation, and tumourigenesis
Soták, Matúš ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Bendová, Zdeňka (referee) ; Herichová, Iveta (referee)
AABBSSTTRRAACCTT The molecular circadian clock enables anticipation of environmental changes. In mammals, clocks are ubiquitously present in almost all tissues and they are comprised of transcriptional-translational feedback loops of the so-called clock genes. The central clock represents the intrinsic pacemaker which is located in suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of hypothalamus and synchronizes peripheral clocks. Clockwork system in alimentary tract and its regulatory link to intestinal functions are poorly understood. Therefore the objective of the thesis was to characterize molecular clock in particular parts of the rat intestine and to elucidate its link to the intestinal transport, regulation of cell cycle and neoplastic transformation in colonic tissue. We used quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) to determine circadian profiles of mRNA expression of clock genes in the epithelium of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon of rat. Furthermore, we analysed the expression of genes coding sodium chloride transporters and channels as well as cell cycle regulators in colon. To focus more precisely on different structures of intestinal epithelia we used laser capture microdissection. In addition, we performed Ussing chamber measurements to determine the colonic electrogenic transport. To study the contribution of circadian...
Role of microRNA in regulations of circadian rhythms and tumorigenesis
Balounová, Kateřina ; Pácha, Jiří (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are ~22nt long single-strand RNA found in all groups of organisms, where they affect biochemical, physiological and behavioral pathways by regulation of protein expression. Regulation of protein expression is mediated by silencing mRNA of target genes in one of two processes, translation repression or degradation of mRNA. Changed expression of miRNA can lead to aberrant regulatory pathways resulting in various pathophysiological conditions like cardiovascular diseases, cancer or neurological disorders. MiRNA can play a role in cancer both as an oncogen or as a tumor suppressor, and it is tissue and cancer-type specific. In colorectal cancer miRNAs downregulate or upregulate signaling pathways including key processes involved in cancer development, like proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and metastasis formation. Circadian clock in mammals synchronizes cellular and physiological processes by transcriptional-translational feedback loops. Not only miRNAs regulate the levels of key clock genes and clock controlled genes, but also a number of miRNAs exhibit circadian expression. Therefore aberrant circadian rhythms increase risk of colorectal cancer also by altered expression of miRNAs. The main aim of the thesis was to identify miRNAs, which regulate both tumorigenesis and circadian...
Phenotypic plasticity of smooth muscle cells
Misárková, Eliška ; Zicha, Josef (advisor) ; Pácha, Jiří (referee)
Vascular smooth muscle cells display a certain level of phenotype plasticity. Under specific conditions fully differentiated cells are able to undergo dedifferentiation and to restart growth and proliferation. An organ culture method is a useful technique for the analysis of dedifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells, because it provides an opportunity for studying the changes in cell phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate the basic contractile characteristics in rat femoral arteries cultured for different time periods (from one to three days). In addition, the effects of fetal bovine serum (FBS), that contains various growth factors and other biological active molecules, on contractile function were studied. We also tried to attenuate cell dedifferentiation by lowering the calcium influx, because calcium is an important second messenger participating in cell growth and proliferation. To achieve this goal we used cultivation with nifedipine, a voltage-dependent calcium channel inhibitor. The cultivation without FBS slightly decreased arterial contractility, whereas the cultivation with FBS decreased arterial contractility considerably. The major change in contractility of arteries cultivated with FBS occurred approximately within 24 hours of cultivation. The cultivation with...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 30 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
1 Pácha, Jan
Interested in being notified about new results for this query?
Subscribe to the RSS feed.