National Repository of Grey Literature 67 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Musculoskeletal ultrasound. Possibilities of selected morphological changes evaluation in the lower extremity.
Mezian, Kamál ; Navrátil, Leoš (advisor) ; Dylevský, Ivan (referee) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
1 Abstract The aim is to investigate whether the distal femoral cartilage (DFC), Achilles tendon (AT) and plantar fascia (PF) were different between healthy young women wearing high-heel shoes (HHS) (> 5 cm) and flat shoes (< 1.4 cm). Measurements from aforementioned structures were obtained by using ultrasound. There were 910 measurement parameters analyzed in total. There were 34 women in the HHS group (mean age 31.1±6.4 years; BMI 21.6 ± 2.3 kg/m2 ) and 57 women in the control group (mean age; 29.5 ± 7.3 years; BMI 22.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2 ). Wearing HHS resulted in thickening of the right medial DFC (2.00 ± 0.41 mm) and left AT (4.07 ± 0.48 mm) in women wearing HHS compared to flat shoes (1.96 ± 0.35 mm, 3.76 ± 0.66 mm, respectively). This might be interpreted as secondary to chronic overload. PF thicknesses were similar both within and between group. Our findings have shown significant thickening of the right medial DFC and left AT in women wearing HHS and these changes might be interpreted as secondary to chronic overload. Further follow-up studies are definitely awaited to provide a better insight into understanding the musculoskeletal consequences of this "social" issue ever-existing in ladies lives. The secondary aim of the thesis comprises two case reports: 1. the first is describing the usefulness of MSK...
Functional assessment after experiemantally induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat
Vyletělová, Ivana ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Konopková, Renata (referee)
Title: Functional assessment after experiemantally induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Objectives: The aim of this diploma thesis was to design and test a set of motor tests, which provide an effective assessment of motor deficit, which forms after small ischemic lesion of primary motor cortex. Methods: Experiment was performed in 16 Long Evans rats from breeding in Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Rats were devided into two groups (experimental and control). Ischemic lesion was induced by a photothrombotic stroke model to affect a small area - a motor cortex. For functional assessment we used five motor tests - Reaching test, Bar holding test, Rotarod test, Ladder rung walking test and Oper field test. For data analysis we used program Sigma Stat3.5®SPSS and Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: Our findings demonstrate that a small lesion of motor cortex is objectively measurable by Reaching test, which focuses on grip and fine motor skills. Other tests assess mainly gross motor skills and there we did not find a significant difference between experimental and control group. Our findings show that functional deficit manifests mostly in funkction of upper limb. During the time of the experiment we can see an improvement and increasing success in Reaching test and...
The role of immune system in autism
Niederlová, Veronika ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Hájková, Michaela (referee)
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with yet unknown etiology. The research point out abnormalities in the immune system of pacients with autism, which could be related to the development of the disease. This thesis reviews current scientific knowledge about the role of the immune system in the development of autism. The leading chapters include family history of autoimmune diseases, specific HLA alleles, the most common autoantibodies and maternal antibodies, lowered NK cell activity and cytokine levels in pacients with autism. Powered by TCPDF (
Formalization of Integrative Physiology
Mateják, Marek ; Kofránek, Jiří (advisor) ; Kasal, Pavel (referee) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
New information technologies bring with them new possibilities for defining and simulating complex physical systems. A huge amount of progress was made in this field with the Modelica language standard, developed by the worldwide nonprofit Modelica Association. Using the Modelica language specification, new chemical, hydraulic, thermal and population components for human physiology were designed for the implementation of the physiological principles in this thesis. The presented free Modelica libraries was named PHYSIOLIBRARY and CHEMICAL. Similarly to the electrical circuits already implemented in the Modelica Standard Library, it is also possible to connect the components of these libraries to the diagrams and, in this way, define more complex components of physiological systems. Using this kind of implementation, this thesis presents an extension and improvement of the HumMod version 1.6 model, developed at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (Jackson, MS), which has more than 5,000 variables. As a result of the use of graphical diagrams, our implementation is more expandable and more modifiable at each point. The precise rules of connections lead to fewer implementation errors. In addition, the visual verification of the model is achieved, because the physiological connections of...
Spectral Analysis of Electromyography Data of Power Lifters
Kofránková, Vlasta ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Tlapáková, Eva (referee)
Title: Spectral Analysis of Electromyography Data of Power Lifters Objectives: The aim of this thesis is a description of muscle activity and its measu- rement using electromyography (EMG), description of parameters of EMG signal and their relationship to neuromuscular physiology. The aim of the practical part is an implementation of spectral analysis of EMG data of power lifters when performing 4 series of 5 split-squats carrying loading in one hand. Methods: The spectral analysis of EMG data of 35 athletes is presented. The athletes performed 4 series of 5 split-squats with one sided loading. The loading was 25% and 50% of their body mass and the carrying position was homolateral and contralateral to stance leg. Muscles chosen for measurement were vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis obliquus, gluteus medius and biceps femoris of both sides. The implementation of digital signal proces- sing algorithm was done using Matlab and its Signal Processing Toolbox. The spectral analysis was implemented using discrete Fourier transform with sliding 256-sample window size and 32-sample window increment. The resulting spectrogram was divided into parts based on smoothed EMG. Median frequency for each split-squat was calculated. For the statistical processing we used median frequency differencies...
Model of cerebral focal cortical ischemia and its parametrization
Svoboda, Jan ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Konopková, Renata (referee)
Title of work: Model of cerebral focal cortical ischemia and its parametrization Work objectives: The aim of this diploma thesis was to apply modified model of focal cortical brain ischemia induced by phototrombosis and subsequently determinate its parameters. Methods: Intravenous application of photosensitive Rose Bengal dye was followed by continual illumination of green laser beam over the left sensorimotocortex for 10 minutes. Following illumination, the dye is activated and produces singlet oxygen that damages components of endothelial cell membranes, with subsequent platelet aggregation and thrombin formation, which eventually determines the interruption of local blood flow. This approach, initially proposed by Rosenblum and El-Sabban in 1977, was later improved by Watson in 1985 in rat brain. For histological evaluation of ischemic brain damage, animals were overdosed with urethane and transcardially perfused. Results: Histological examination of brains showed significant ischemic damage in all experimental animals. Lesion was located in left hemisphere and penetrated thought the grey matter in various extents. Size of lesion, its localization and depth has shown only a small variability in the individual groups. Noticeable differences were found right after comparing experimental groups....
Modelling of changes of the intracranial pressure (ICP) during physiological and pathological processes
Vaněk, Petr ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Suchomel, Petr (referee) ; Sameš, Martin (referee)
The more we know about the circulation of CSF through ventricle system, brain parenchyma, subarachnoideal space and the development of intracranial pressure (ICP), the more we understand different pathologies and pathological processes of the central cervous system. The knowledge about the basic hydrodynamic charecteristics of craniospinal system is a key factor for understanding a wide range of pathological situations affecting CNS, these are for example intracranial hypertension, normal pressure hydrocephalus and syringomyelia. In the presented paper, we are presenting a newly developed measuring system Visionbrain that enables us to gain the biological data and consequently to analyse them. At the same time, the results of such measurements were used to specify the compertmental model of CSF circulation. The model devides craniospinal system into five divisions - two intracranial and three spinal. Such model is the third generation of this model and, compared to the older version, it includes two intracranial veins. Thanks to this stucture, the model enables us simultaneous modeling of heart and respiratory pulsations of CSF. Compared to the other published models, it also includes defined structure of spinal part. The model is derived using laws of conservation and it encompasses pressure...
Influence of crank arm length on change of muscle tone of musculus triceps surae
Stránský, Vojtěch ; Šifta, Petr (advisor) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
Title: Influence of crank arm length on change of muscle tone of musculus triceps surae Objectives: The aim of this thesis is to conclude the theoretical knowledge of this issue. The experiment is to uncover via the objective results, if the change of the crank arm length can influence the muscle tone of m.triceps surae and additionaly how much. Methods: The measurement for this thesis was processed at Charles University at the Faculty of Physical Activity and Sports, measuring 8 volunteers. Via myotonometry, the biomechanic properties (stiffness and viscosity) of m.triceps surae were measured before and after the workout on a bicycle ergometer. These steps were repeated twice within a week with different crank arm length (170mm and 175mm). On the basis of the reaction of soft tissues on deformation from the tip of the myotonometer, the graphs are depicted, containing the hysteresis curve. We evaluate there two phenomenons - steepness and the content of the curves. They indicate biomechanic properties of soft tissues, resp. also the muscle tissue. Results: The measurements from the 1st and 2nd week were compared. The results of 8 probands show that cycling as a physical activity changes stiffness and viscosity of m. triceps surae and has therefore an influence on the muscle tone. Considering larger...
Consequences of experimentaly induced perinatal cerebral ischemic lesion
Bahníková, Eva ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Konopková, Renata (referee)
1 Abstract Title: Consequences of experimentally induced perinatal cerebral ischemic lesion. Aim: This thesis aims to present the issues and analyze current knowledge in the field of perinatal brain damage, particularly perinatal cerebral ischemic lesions as the most common brain infarction in children. Basic characteristics of the disease, syndromology, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors are emphasized. Following the theoretical background the thesis analyzes current trends as well as the limitations of the diagnostics and therapy. The aim is to highlight the need for early diagnosis and emphasize the potential of preventive treatment strategies. The practical part follows the theoretical background and expands the topic on the analysis of motor and behavioral consequences of experimentally induced perinatal ischemic stroke. Method: Cerebral focal ischemia was induced experimentally by photothrombotic method to seven days old rats. Rose Bengal intravenously followed by continual illumination of the senzorimotor cortex using a green laser beam for 10 minutes was induced platelet aggregation and subsequent thrombosis. Eight animals at age of two months were evaluated for 7 days via observational cages PhenoTyper. Results: The theoretical part collected and processed theoretical data on the...

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3 Otáhal, Jiří
2 Otáhal, Josef
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