National Repository of Grey Literature 72 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Physiology of Blood Brain Barrier
Kellner, Patrik ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Pačesová, Dominika (referee)
This thesis takes on the theme of blood-brain barrier. Blood-brain barrier is a physiological barrier, that divides the circulatory system from brain, in place of their konfrontation. Barriers main task is to maintain homeostasis and regulate the transport of substances in both directions. The most important group of proteins, responsible for transport, are the ABC transporters. Alterations of barrier properties during the pathological states, but also the distribution of medical drugs is subject of futher investigations. Overview of the above mentioned themes will be mediated by this thesis.
Simulation and experimental evaluation of the effects of small ammunition bullets entering a bulletproof vest
Billich, Richard ; Jelen, Karel (advisor) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee) ; Chlup, Hynek (referee)
Title: Simulation and experimental evaluation of the effects of small ammunition bullets entering a bulletproof vest Objectives: The main objectives of the study were: parameterization of the wounding effects of bulletson artificial materials, quantification of bullet impacts using international and experimental gunshot wounding criteria, parameterization of the mechanical characteristics of polymer fibers used in bulletproof vests, objectification of the deformation effects of missiles on soft biological tissues and creating a simplified analysis of ballistic missile interaction. Methods: In this study, experiments were performed on two artificial materials: food gelatine and glycerine soap. Calculated values and individual parameters are reported for 9 mm weapon systems. The experiments were performed in a ballistic test laboratory under standardized conditions. Data processing and parameterization of shape changes were performed using computed tomography (CT), micro-CT,ultrasound elastography and 3D scanning. Other devices used were infrared vibration spectroscopy and high-speed camera. We used the collected datato create analytical relations describing the mechanical effects ofthe material under a bulletproof vest.. Results: The area of greatest impact for the ammunition was 1.48 - 1.6 times...
Structural changes in model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in rat
Slotta, Michal ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Riljak, Vladimír (referee)
Title: Structural changes in model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in rat Objectives: The aim of the research is to develop a model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a rat that would represent perinatal injury in a human and then histologically differentiate the most commonly damaged cerebral structures. Methods: This is an experimental study. Five laboratory rats underwent hypoxic-ischemic conditions causing encephalopathy according to the Rice-Vannucci model. The control group representing the other five rats underwent hypoxia for 1.5 hours. Subsequently, the animals were returned to their mother. 48 hours later, cerebral perfusion, paraffinisation, slicing the brain into sections and followed by applying these sections onto slides. Sections to represent morphological changes and degeneration of neurons were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Fluoro Jade B and immunohistochemically. The sections were then observed and evaluated under a light microscope. Results: Following the onset of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 7-day-old rat pups, damage to the investigated structures was observed in two animals. Other animals in the experimental group exhibited only minor morphological changes in neurons observable in H&E staining. Brains of the control group were intact. Keywords: necrosis,...
Motor and cognitive consequences of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Pernicová, Alice ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Riljak, Vladimír (referee)
Author: Bc. Alice Pernicová Title: Motor and cognitive consequences of hypoxic-ischemic damage Objectives: The aim of this diploma work was asses the impact of Enriched Environment on development of rats after hypoxic-ischemic damage. Methods: Experiment was performed in 30 Long Evans rats from breeding in Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. All rats were operated for dissection of carotid. Than randomly were half of rats chosen for hypoxic-ischemic damage. Group with hypoxic-ischemic damage were divided into control and experimental group, same procedure was with rats without HIE. For one week were rats from experimental group in special Enriched Environment cage, than they were split into smaller cages with Enriched Environment. Rats from control groups were in normal cages without special equipment. After defined time were all rats tested by chosen test: Reaching test, Ladder rung walking test, Bar holding test, Rotarod test, Morris water maze test, Open filed test. For data analysis were used Microsoft Excel 365, Sigma plot. Results: Results of test showed, that Enriched Environment can positively enhance motoric and cognitive deficit in rat development with hypoxic-ischemic damage. But it is obvious, that Enriched Environment can positively enhance development...
Functional consequences of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat
Nováková, Eva ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Riljak, Vladimír (referee)
Title: Functional consequences of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat Objectives: The aim of this diploma thesis is to design a set of behavioral tests which provide an effective assessment of motor and cognitive-behavioural deficits in adults rats after experimental hypoxic-ischemic insult during the perinatal period (P7). Supposed benefit is to establish a model of motor and cognitive-behavioural abilities of individuals after this procedure. Methods: The present thesis has a theoretical-empirical character. The practical part describes how the experiment was performed. 32 long Evans Rats were randomly devided into two groups: experimental group (HIE) and control group (Ctrl). The method to produce hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the 7 day-old rats consisted of right common carotid ligation followed by systemic hypoxia by the inhalation of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen. The adult animals (55-75 days old) were tested by the following list of behavioral tests: Bar holding test, Rotarod test, Ladder rung walking test, Reaching test, Open field test and Morris water maze test. Sigma Plot and Microsoft Excel 2010 were the programs used for statistical analysis. Results: Results of Open field test, Ladder rung walking test and Morris water maze test confirmed that hypoxic-ischemic insult affects the...
Musculoskeletal ultrasound. Possibilities of selected morphological changes evaluation in the lower extremity.
Mezian, Kamál ; Navrátil, Leoš (advisor) ; Dylevský, Ivan (referee) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
1 Abstract The aim is to investigate whether the distal femoral cartilage (DFC), Achilles tendon (AT) and plantar fascia (PF) were different between healthy young women wearing high-heel shoes (HHS) (> 5 cm) and flat shoes (< 1.4 cm). Measurements from aforementioned structures were obtained by using ultrasound. There were 910 measurement parameters analyzed in total. There were 34 women in the HHS group (mean age 31.1±6.4 years; BMI 21.6 ± 2.3 kg/m2 ) and 57 women in the control group (mean age; 29.5 ± 7.3 years; BMI 22.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2 ). Wearing HHS resulted in thickening of the right medial DFC (2.00 ± 0.41 mm) and left AT (4.07 ± 0.48 mm) in women wearing HHS compared to flat shoes (1.96 ± 0.35 mm, 3.76 ± 0.66 mm, respectively). This might be interpreted as secondary to chronic overload. PF thicknesses were similar both within and between group. Our findings have shown significant thickening of the right medial DFC and left AT in women wearing HHS and these changes might be interpreted as secondary to chronic overload. Further follow-up studies are definitely awaited to provide a better insight into understanding the musculoskeletal consequences of this "social" issue ever-existing in ladies lives. The secondary aim of the thesis comprises two case reports: 1. the first is describing the usefulness of MSK...
Functional assessment after experiemantally induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat
Vyletělová, Ivana ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Konopková, Renata (referee)
Title: Functional assessment after experiemantally induced focal cerebral ischemia in rat. Objectives: The aim of this diploma thesis was to design and test a set of motor tests, which provide an effective assessment of motor deficit, which forms after small ischemic lesion of primary motor cortex. Methods: Experiment was performed in 16 Long Evans rats from breeding in Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Rats were devided into two groups (experimental and control). Ischemic lesion was induced by a photothrombotic stroke model to affect a small area - a motor cortex. For functional assessment we used five motor tests - Reaching test, Bar holding test, Rotarod test, Ladder rung walking test and Oper field test. For data analysis we used program Sigma Stat3.5®SPSS and Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: Our findings demonstrate that a small lesion of motor cortex is objectively measurable by Reaching test, which focuses on grip and fine motor skills. Other tests assess mainly gross motor skills and there we did not find a significant difference between experimental and control group. Our findings show that functional deficit manifests mostly in funkction of upper limb. During the time of the experiment we can see an improvement and increasing success in Reaching test and...
The role of immune system in autism
Niederlová, Veronika ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Hájková, Michaela (referee)
Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with yet unknown etiology. The research point out abnormalities in the immune system of pacients with autism, which could be related to the development of the disease. This thesis reviews current scientific knowledge about the role of the immune system in the development of autism. The leading chapters include family history of autoimmune diseases, specific HLA alleles, the most common autoantibodies and maternal antibodies, lowered NK cell activity and cytokine levels in pacients with autism. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Formalization of Integrative Physiology
Mateják, Marek ; Kofránek, Jiří (advisor) ; Kasal, Pavel (referee) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
New information technologies bring with them new possibilities for defining and simulating complex physical systems. A huge amount of progress was made in this field with the Modelica language standard, developed by the worldwide nonprofit Modelica Association. Using the Modelica language specification, new chemical, hydraulic, thermal and population components for human physiology were designed for the implementation of the physiological principles in this thesis. The presented free Modelica libraries was named PHYSIOLIBRARY and CHEMICAL. Similarly to the electrical circuits already implemented in the Modelica Standard Library, it is also possible to connect the components of these libraries to the diagrams and, in this way, define more complex components of physiological systems. Using this kind of implementation, this thesis presents an extension and improvement of the HumMod version 1.6 model, developed at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (Jackson, MS), which has more than 5,000 variables. As a result of the use of graphical diagrams, our implementation is more expandable and more modifiable at each point. The precise rules of connections lead to fewer implementation errors. In addition, the visual verification of the model is achieved, because the physiological connections of...

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3 Otáhal, Jiří
2 Otáhal, Josef
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