National Repository of Grey Literature 75 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Physiology of Blood Brain Barrier
Kellner, Patrik ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Filipovská, Eva (referee)
This thesis takes on the theme of blood-brain barrier. Blood-brain barrier is a physiological barrier, that divides the circulatory system from brain, in place of their konfrontation. Barriers main task is to maintain homeostasis and regulate the transport of substances in both directions. The most important group of proteins, responsible for transport, are the ABC transporters. Alterations of barrier properties during the pathological states, but also the distribution of medical drugs is subject of futher investigations. Overview of the above mentioned themes will be mediated by this thesis.
The role of Pin1 and CDK5 in Alzheimer's disease-linked phosphorylation and spread of CRMP2 pathology in neurons.
Rusková, Michaela ; Balaštík, Martin (advisor) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
One of the pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increased activity of CDK5 kinase and downregulation of isomerase Pin1. Other observed pathology is aggregation of phosphorylated protein CRMP2 (Collapsin response mediator protein 2) in insoluble neurofibrillary tangles. One of the risk factors of AD is traumatic brain injury, which leads to increased accumulation of insoluble proteins. In this work is characterized the effect of high CDK5 kinase activity and low Pin1 level (similar as found in Alzheimer's disease) on formation and spread of hyperphosphorylated CRMP2 aggregates in vivo in models of mild repetitive traumatic brain injury. Western blot and immunostaining was used for characterization of specific accumulation of insoluble CRMP2A in brain and his phosphorylation and also for phosphorylation of C-terminal of CRMP2. The results suggest that increased phosphorylation, conformational stress, and TBI leads to an increase of insoluble phosphorylated CRMP2A in brain, which can lead to pathology of AD, due to accumulation of insoluble aggregates. However, the additivity of these processes has not been confirmed.
Neurological deficit after focal cerebral ischemia in rat - pharmacological intervention
Eliášová, Karolína ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Svoboda, Jan (referee)
Title: Neurological deficit after focal cerebral ischemia in rats - pharmacological intervention Objectives: The goal of the thesis was to determine the effect of 7-nitroindazole, a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, after focal ischemic stroke in rats. Methods: Twenty adult male Wistar rats were used in this experiment. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: ischemic stroke was given to half of them, the rest were sham operated. 10 animals were given 7-nitroindazole (25mg/kg) to protect neuronal ischemic brain damage. After a few weeks the rats were tested with a set of behavioral tests: Ladder rung walking test, Bar holding test, Rotarod test and Open field test. To evaluate the volume of brain damage the stereotactic method was used. The brain sections were cut and compared with atlas. This study was supported by Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences ČR in Prague. Results: The present results show that the 7-nitroindazole has no side effects on healthy rats. The long-term effect on rats after ischemic stroke was not proved. There were a few positive trends observed such as an increase of locomotor speed, increased explorative behaviour and better coordination outcome on RotaRod. On the other hand the brain tissue damage was bigger and the time of hanging in...
Physiology of Blood Brain Barrier
Kellner, Patrik ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Pačesová, Dominika (referee)
This thesis takes on the theme of blood-brain barrier. Blood-brain barrier is a physiological barrier, that divides the circulatory system from brain, in place of their konfrontation. Barriers main task is to maintain homeostasis and regulate the transport of substances in both directions. The most important group of proteins, responsible for transport, are the ABC transporters. Alterations of barrier properties during the pathological states, but also the distribution of medical drugs is subject of futher investigations. Overview of the above mentioned themes will be mediated by this thesis.
Simulation and experimental evaluation of the effects of small ammunition bullets entering a bulletproof vest
Billich, Richard ; Jelen, Karel (advisor) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee) ; Chlup, Hynek (referee)
Title: Simulation and experimental evaluation of the effects of small ammunition bullets entering a bulletproof vest Objectives: The main objectives of the study were: parameterization of the wounding effects of bulletson artificial materials, quantification of bullet impacts using international and experimental gunshot wounding criteria, parameterization of the mechanical characteristics of polymer fibers used in bulletproof vests, objectification of the deformation effects of missiles on soft biological tissues and creating a simplified analysis of ballistic missile interaction. Methods: In this study, experiments were performed on two artificial materials: food gelatine and glycerine soap. Calculated values and individual parameters are reported for 9 mm weapon systems. The experiments were performed in a ballistic test laboratory under standardized conditions. Data processing and parameterization of shape changes were performed using computed tomography (CT), micro-CT,ultrasound elastography and 3D scanning. Other devices used were infrared vibration spectroscopy and high-speed camera. We used the collected datato create analytical relations describing the mechanical effects ofthe material under a bulletproof vest.. Results: The area of greatest impact for the ammunition was 1.48 - 1.6 times...
Structural changes in model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in rat
Slotta, Michal ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Riljak, Vladimír (referee)
Title: Structural changes in model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in rat Objectives: The aim of the research is to develop a model of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in a rat that would represent perinatal injury in a human and then histologically differentiate the most commonly damaged cerebral structures. Methods: This is an experimental study. Five laboratory rats underwent hypoxic-ischemic conditions causing encephalopathy according to the Rice-Vannucci model. The control group representing the other five rats underwent hypoxia for 1.5 hours. Subsequently, the animals were returned to their mother. 48 hours later, cerebral perfusion, paraffinisation, slicing the brain into sections and followed by applying these sections onto slides. Sections to represent morphological changes and degeneration of neurons were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin, Fluoro Jade B and immunohistochemically. The sections were then observed and evaluated under a light microscope. Results: Following the onset of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in 7-day-old rat pups, damage to the investigated structures was observed in two animals. Other animals in the experimental group exhibited only minor morphological changes in neurons observable in H&E staining. Brains of the control group were intact. Keywords: necrosis,...
Motor and cognitive consequences of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Pernicová, Alice ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Riljak, Vladimír (referee)
Author: Bc. Alice Pernicová Title: Motor and cognitive consequences of hypoxic-ischemic damage Objectives: The aim of this diploma work was asses the impact of Enriched Environment on development of rats after hypoxic-ischemic damage. Methods: Experiment was performed in 30 Long Evans rats from breeding in Institute of Physiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. All rats were operated for dissection of carotid. Than randomly were half of rats chosen for hypoxic-ischemic damage. Group with hypoxic-ischemic damage were divided into control and experimental group, same procedure was with rats without HIE. For one week were rats from experimental group in special Enriched Environment cage, than they were split into smaller cages with Enriched Environment. Rats from control groups were in normal cages without special equipment. After defined time were all rats tested by chosen test: Reaching test, Ladder rung walking test, Bar holding test, Rotarod test, Morris water maze test, Open filed test. For data analysis were used Microsoft Excel 365, Sigma plot. Results: Results of test showed, that Enriched Environment can positively enhance motoric and cognitive deficit in rat development with hypoxic-ischemic damage. But it is obvious, that Enriched Environment can positively enhance development...
Functional consequences of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat
Nováková, Eva ; Otáhal, Jakub (advisor) ; Riljak, Vladimír (referee)
Title: Functional consequences of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in rat Objectives: The aim of this diploma thesis is to design a set of behavioral tests which provide an effective assessment of motor and cognitive-behavioural deficits in adults rats after experimental hypoxic-ischemic insult during the perinatal period (P7). Supposed benefit is to establish a model of motor and cognitive-behavioural abilities of individuals after this procedure. Methods: The present thesis has a theoretical-empirical character. The practical part describes how the experiment was performed. 32 long Evans Rats were randomly devided into two groups: experimental group (HIE) and control group (Ctrl). The method to produce hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in the 7 day-old rats consisted of right common carotid ligation followed by systemic hypoxia by the inhalation of 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen. The adult animals (55-75 days old) were tested by the following list of behavioral tests: Bar holding test, Rotarod test, Ladder rung walking test, Reaching test, Open field test and Morris water maze test. Sigma Plot and Microsoft Excel 2010 were the programs used for statistical analysis. Results: Results of Open field test, Ladder rung walking test and Morris water maze test confirmed that hypoxic-ischemic insult affects the...
Musculoskeletal ultrasound. Possibilities of selected morphological changes evaluation in the lower extremity.
Mezian, Kamál ; Navrátil, Leoš (advisor) ; Dylevský, Ivan (referee) ; Otáhal, Jakub (referee)
1 Abstract The aim is to investigate whether the distal femoral cartilage (DFC), Achilles tendon (AT) and plantar fascia (PF) were different between healthy young women wearing high-heel shoes (HHS) (> 5 cm) and flat shoes (< 1.4 cm). Measurements from aforementioned structures were obtained by using ultrasound. There were 910 measurement parameters analyzed in total. There were 34 women in the HHS group (mean age 31.1±6.4 years; BMI 21.6 ± 2.3 kg/m2 ) and 57 women in the control group (mean age; 29.5 ± 7.3 years; BMI 22.5 ± 3.4 kg/m2 ). Wearing HHS resulted in thickening of the right medial DFC (2.00 ± 0.41 mm) and left AT (4.07 ± 0.48 mm) in women wearing HHS compared to flat shoes (1.96 ± 0.35 mm, 3.76 ± 0.66 mm, respectively). This might be interpreted as secondary to chronic overload. PF thicknesses were similar both within and between group. Our findings have shown significant thickening of the right medial DFC and left AT in women wearing HHS and these changes might be interpreted as secondary to chronic overload. Further follow-up studies are definitely awaited to provide a better insight into understanding the musculoskeletal consequences of this "social" issue ever-existing in ladies lives. The secondary aim of the thesis comprises two case reports: 1. the first is describing the usefulness of MSK...

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3 Otáhal, Jiří
2 Otáhal, Josef
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