Národní úložiště šedé literatury Nalezeno 16 záznamů.  1 - 10další  přejít na záznam: Hledání trvalo 0.00 vteřin. 
Towards a combining of remote sensing and in situ evapotranspiration measurements
Fischer, Milan ; Jurečka, František ; Anderson, M. ; Hain, C. ; Pozníková, Gabriela ; Hlavinka, Petr ; Orság, Matěj ; Lukas, V. ; Žalud, Z. ; Trnka, Miroslav
This study provides preliminary results from combining in situ Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) and\nevapotranspiration (ET) measurements techniques with physically based remote sensing ET estimates determined\nby the Atmosphere-Land Exchange Inverse (ALEXI) model. Evapotranspiration measurements\nand ALEXI estimates were analysed in an agricultural area close to Polkovice, Czech Republic during 2015,\nwhen a drought spell and intensive heatwaves appeared in the country. The BREB system was monitoring a\nwinter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) field (~26 ha) while the ALEXI pixel (~5 km resolution) covered a wide\nrange of crops, including mainly winter wheat, spring barley, and winter rape. The study results showed that,\nalthough the applied methods work at different spatial scales (field vs. landscape), their combination can provide\nfurther insights into ET at both scales. For instance, such approach can be used to identify whether a specific\necosystem investigated in situ contributes to cooling or warming of the landscape.
The Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance method and detailed temperature profile measurements to improve data quality control
Pozníková, Gabriela ; Fischer, Milan ; Orság, Matěj ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Žalud, Zdeněk
Water plays a key role in the functionality and sustainability of ecosystems. In light of predicted climate change, research should focus on the water cycle and its individual components. The main component of water balance driving water from ecosystems is evapotranspiration (ET). One standard method for measuring ET is the Bowen Ratio/Energy Balance (BREB) method. It is based on the assumption that water vapour and heat are transported by identical eddies with equal efficiency. When using the BREB method, we assume that the profiles of temperature and air humidity are ideally logarithmic or at least consistent. Since the BREB method is usually based on measurements of temperature and humidity at only two heights, it is difficult to verify whether this assumption has been fulfilled. Potential profile inconsistencies are more likely for temperature because the sensible heat flux changes its sign more often and negative latent heat flux is not physically possible during positive sensible heat flux. We therefore conducted a field experiment using a 4-mhigh measurement mast with 20 thermocouples for detailed measurement of air temperature profiles above different covers, e.g. grassland, spring barley, and poplar plantations. Our main objective was to investigate the basic assumptions of the BREB method, i.e. the temperature profile’s consistency under various weather conditions. To be more specific, we aimed to investigate whether inflexion points occurred within the temperature profile and if so when.
The influence of reduced precipitation supply on spring barley yields and the ability of crop growth models to simulate drought stress
Pohanková, Eva ; Orság, Matěj ; Hlavinka, Petr
This paper evaluates the first year (2014) of results from a field experiment with spring barley (cultivar Bojos) under reduced precipitation supply. The field experiment was carried out at an experimental station in the Czech Republic and consisted of small plots in two variants and three repetitions. The first variant was uncovered, and the second was partly covered to exclude rain throughout the entire vegetation season. For plots’ partial covering, a material was used to divert rainwater away from 70% of the plots. The main aim was to determine whether there are any differences in soil water content or in grain yield size between uncovered and partly covered plots and to compare the results obtained. Data measured in this field experiment were used to compare simulations of this field experiment in the DAISY crop growth model. Subsequently, the crop growth model’s ability to simulate grain yield, which was affected by drought stress, was explored. In reality, differences in phenological development and grain yield size were not evident. Reducing precipitation supply in DAISY by about 70% led to simulations of covered plots with reduced grain yield in accordance with the initial hypothesis. Agreement between observed and simulated grain yield was evaluated using selected statistical indicators: root mean square error (RMSE) as a parameter of average magnitude of error and mean bias error (MBE) as an indicator of systematic error. RMSE of grain yield was 2.6 t ha−1. MBE revealed grain yield undervalued by 2.6 t ha−1.
Long-term productivity of short rotation coppice under decreased soil water availability
Orság, Matěj ; Fischer, Milan ; Tripathi, Abishek ; Žalud, Zdeněk ; Trnka, Miroslav
Wood, in fact, is the unsung hero of the technological revolution that has brought us from a stone and bone culture to our present age (Perlin 1991). Given its high-energy content and versatile use, biomass in the form of wood has been used for energy purposes for millennia. The production and use of woody biomass resources has been expanding around the world. The main drivers of its use as a source of energy are diversification and mitigation of energy related greenhouse gas emissions through partial substitution for fossil fuels. An alternative to sourcing wood biomass from natural forests is short rotation woody coppice. Its productivity is largely dependent on the environment in terms of climatic conditions. Especially drought is the main constraint on woody biomass production and involves serious economic consequences. For that reason, our field experiment was designed to evaluate the impact of decreased soil water availability on productivity of a poplar based short rotation coppice plantation over multiple growing seasons during 2011–2014. Aboveground biomass productivity of treatments with and without throughfall exclusion was assessed within this study. Our results show a systematic decline in the productivity of the plots subjected to decreased soil water availability by 30% in 2011, 20% in 2012, 49% in 2013, and 51% in 2014 compared to control plot. Aboveground biomass productivity ranged from 8.8 to 9.9 t dry matter ha−1 year−1 for the control treatment and 4.5 to 8.0 t dry matter ha−1 year−1 for the treatment with throughfall exclusion.On average, the throughfall exclusion treatment exhibited 47% less productivity than control treatment had over the entire study period.
Analysis of poplar water-use efficiency at Domanínek experimental site
Hlaváčová, M. ; Fischer, Milan ; Tripathi, Abishek ; Orság, Matěj ; Trnka, Miroslav
The main objective of this study was to test if water-use efficiency (WUE) values are higher for short-rotation poplar coppice than they are for field crops. WUE of woody biomass was determined for 16 trees within a short-rotation poplar coppiced culture (poplar clone J-105) in the within the Czech Republic during the 2013 growing season. Total WUE of woody biomass for the 16 measured trees was 4.93 g kg−1 when calculated with the data set without a vapour pressure deficit condition and 4.63 g kg−1 when calculated with the data set with a vapour pressure deficit condition. Poplar clone J-105 is a tree species with relatively high WUE, but some crops or short-rotation coppice species can reach higher or comparable WUE values.
Leaf area index development and radiation use efficiency of a poplar short rotation coppice culture
Tripathi, Abishek ; Fischer, Milan ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Orság, Matěj ; Vanbeveren, S. ; Marek, Michal V.
Leaf area index (LAI) is the most appropriate parameter for analyzing canopy structure and crop productivity. LAI and radiation use efficiency (RUE) were estimated to evaluate the productivity of a short rotation coppice culture of a poplar clone. RUE was calculated as the ratio between total aboveground woody biomass and available photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) accumulated during one growing season. Prior to coppicing, LAI reached a maximum value of 7.3 (in 2009), whereas the maximum LAI after coppicing was 6.8 (in 2012). The maximum RUE reached prior to coppicing was 0.25 g mol−1 (in 2009), while after coppicing it was 0.20 g mol−1 (in 2012), which did not represent a significant difference (p > 0.05).
Poplar-based short rotation coppice under artificially induced drought stress
Orság, Matěj ; Fischer, Milan ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Žalud, Zdeněk
The main aim of this study was to evaluate the diff erences in chosen microclimatological and ecophysiological variables between two types of experimental plots with diff erent levels of available soil water within a poplar-based (Populus nigra × P. maximowiczii) short rotation coppice plantation (SRC) during summer 2012. Diversity of sap fl ow, stomatal conductance and biomass increment were monitored between two treatments during the growing season of 2012. Th ere are 3 pairs of experimental plots under research. Each pair comprises a control plot and a neighbouring plot, equipped with a roof system, draining 40 % of the incoming rain water away (the water reduced plot). Our results show that a 40 % reduction in through-fall resulted in a 26 % reduction in transpiration and a 27 % reduction in stomatal conductance over the four month study period, which led to a statistically signifi cant (p = 0.03) deceleration of above-ground biomass accumulation at the plots with water-reduced treatment.
Comparison of eddy covariance and bowen ratio energy balance method. Energy balance cloruse versus bowen ratio similarity assumption
Fischer, Milan ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Pozníková, Gabriela ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Orság, Matěj ; Kučera, J. ; Žalud, Z.
The Bowen ratio and the Monin-Obukhov similarity principles are based on the assumption that the eddy diff usivities for temperature and humidity are equal to each other under all atmospheric stratifi cations within turbulent surface boundary layer. However, several authors reported that this equality was violated under advective inversion or during the non-stationary conditions due to clouds passing by and sudden change of wind speed and direction. Th e inequality of the eddy diff usivity can lead to errors in the energy partitioning estimates by gradient techniques like the Bowen ratio energy balance (BREB) and the aerodynamical method, or methods based on residual energy balance such as the Penman-Monteith or Priestley-Taylor models. Th is study investigates two seasons of simultaneous measurement by eddy covariance (EC) and BREB above a high density poplar plantation at the Domanínek locality. Th e direct measurement of eddy diff usivities by EC is reinvestigating the validity of the long term measurement (since 2008) by BREB. Results showed unequal exchange coeffi cients with their mean 0.31 to 0.35 m2 s-1 for 2011 and 2012, respectively, favouring the transport of latent heat. Th is might be explained by the diff erent footprints of the BREB and EC methods, an undeveloped internal boundary layer or instrumental errors.
Estimation of above ground woody biomass of SRC hybrid poplar clone J-105 in different fertilizer treatments in Czech-Moravian highland
Tripathi, A.M. ; Trnka, Miroslav ; Fischer, Milan ; Orság, Matěj ; Fajman, M. ; Marek, Michal V. ; Žalud, Zdeněk
Short rotation coppice poplar hybrid clone J-105 (Populus nigra x P. maximowiczii) is studied as an alternative source of bio-energy in the region of Czech-Moravian Highland. The plantation was established in 2001 at the locality Domanínek in the vicinity of Bystřice nad Pernštejnem (Czech Republic, 49o32’N, 16o15’E and altitude 530 m a. s. l.) where mean annual rainfall of 609 mm and mean annual temperature of 7.2oC was recorded between 1981 and 2010. The total area planted with the clone was close to 1.5 ha with total plantation area being close to 3.5 ha. The plantation with planned density of 9,216 trees ha-1was established on the former agricultural land and the length of the rotation cycle was set to 6-8 years. At the beginning of the second rotation period i.e. in spring 2009 (following winter harvest), the plantation was divided into four randomized blocks with different nutrient treatments and three replicates (4×3). These treatments comprised of application of mineral NPK fertilizer (nitrogen 305 kg ha-1, phosphorous 154 kg ha-1 and potassium 291 kg ha-1), sewage sludge (4200 kg/ha-1) and ash (1000kg ha-1) and lime (5 ton ha-1), while control was with natural nutrients content only (deposition and leaves mineralization). The objectives of the study were to estimate the above ground annual yields (based on allometry and stem inventory), the mortality and the shoot to stump ratio as the main productivity characteristics.

Národní úložiště šedé literatury : Nalezeno 16 záznamů.   1 - 10další  přejít na záznam:
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