National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Preparation and characterization of lightweight polymer materials with hierarchical cellular structure
Režnáková, Ema ; Ondreáš, František (referee) ; Lepcio, Petr (advisor)
The asymmetrical arrangement of cellular structure allows for an accurate functional adaptation at all levels of hierarchy, which derives excellent features for the development of new materials. The main objective of introducing a hierarchy into cellular structures is to improve the mechanical behaviour of the material while maintaining its elastic properties. A part of this work is devoted to the literature review related to the lightened cellular polymeric materials with hierarchical cellular structure. The rest is focused on the preparation of PLA based polymer structures using 3D printing, followed by a saturation in CO2 and a foaming in a silicon oil at elevated temperature. Samples were prepared from natural and white PLA filaments. Based on a series of experiments, optimal conditions for the saturation and foaming process were identified. Through 3D printing and foaming, a one-, two- and three-level hierarchy was introduced into the beam-shaped samples and the effect of the internal cell arrangement on the strain response of the material was examined by the means of a mechanical three-point bending test. Increasing the level of the hierarchy led to an increase in material resistance, which resulted in high values of strength and strain energy (toughness) based on the samples density. The best results were achieved by samples with “sandwich” structure with three levels of hierarchy and 30% filling. Despite the shorter plateau, there was a significant increase in strength and strain energy compared to gradient structures. At the same time, the contribution of the polymer structures prepared in this field of research was demonstrated by comparison with the theoretical model.
Processing optimalization of biodegradable starch based packaging and its characterization for adaptation on production technology
Krahulová, Veronika ; Ondreáš, František (referee) ; Lepcio, Petr (advisor)
This diploma thesis focuses on the problematics of preparation of biodegradable starch based packaging. The aim of the thesis is to optimize the preparation and verify the characteristics for further adaptation and production technologies. The films consisted of starch, PVA and glycerol. Four types of starches, three types of PVA and different ratios of glycerol were tested. Films were prepared by casting with glycerol as a plasticizer, instead of distilled water, to reduce the energy cost of the preparation. The mechanical properties of the films were tested as well. The experimentally determined values of elongation at break and tensile strength of the wheat starch films were compared with a semiempirical model. Results revealed that the preparation of thermoplasticization of starch with glycerol leads to a considerable increase in elongation at break but at the same time to a marked decrease in tensile strength compared to the preparation from solution. The rheological properties of the prepared films were also investigated. Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to study the structure of the films.
Structure and properties of physically foamed polymer nanocomposites
Kotoučková, Simona ; Ondreáš, František (referee) ; Lepcio, Petr (advisor)
This work deals with physically foamed polymer nanocomposites. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with various possibilities of preparation of polymer foams. Another important problematics on which the theoretical part focuses is the ability to control the spatial organization of nanoparticles in a polymer matrix. For the experimental part, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as a model system, and it is assumed that it will be possible to based on the obtained conclusions on research in more complicated systems with a wider practical application potential such as polypropylene impact-copolymer (ICPP). The experimental part focuses on optimalization of the process of preparing nanocomposite foam. The object of optimization is to determine the appropriate saturation time when maximum carbon dioxide saturation is achieved under a given pressure. The effect of nanoparticles on the process of saturation and foaming was analyzed by comparing nanocomposites with the preparation of pure polymer foams. On the prepared foam samples, the shape stability during foaming and the dimensional stability after foaming at elevated temperature were evaluated. The effect of nanoparticles on the resulting structure of porous material was evaluated. This effect was demonstrated by the preparation and evaluation of acquired SEM images of a laminar structure sample containing a composite and a pure polymer layer.
Biomimetic polymer/graphene layered nanocomposites
Dostalík, Petr ; Ondreáš, František (referee) ; Zbončák, Marek (advisor)
This batchelot thesis deals with preparation of biomimetic polymer/graphene layered nanocomposites. In order to prepare nanocomposites, it was first necessary to prepare a suitable graphene material. The Tour-Marcan method was chosen for its preparation, in which the effect of oxidation time on the structure of the resulting graphene/graphite oxide was investigated. From the result of structural analysis was evaluated, that after 4 hours of oxidation structure of graphite was intercalated, oxygen groups were formed (mainly expoxy groups) and inter-layer spacing increased to form graphite oxide (GO). Extension of oxidation time did not lead to major changes in struture of GO. Nanocomposites were prepareted by solution-casting method. The polar polymer – polyvinyl alcohol (PVAl) was used as a matrix with assumption of strong interaction between GO a PVAl. In order to promote GO intercalation, an ultrasonic dispersant was used in the process of nanocomposite preparation, the effect of which was manifested by an increase in the inter-layer GO distance in nanocomposites. It has been observed that the inter-layer spacing of GO and PVA1 is affected by the concentration of the individual components in the nanocomposites, suggesting a possible modification of the PVA1 crystalline structure. Structural analysis revealed that GO layers in composite were oriented in one direction.
Thermomechanical response of polymer nanocomposites with preparation protocol controlled nanoparticle dispersion
Ondreáš, František ; Chodák,, Ivan (referee) ; Matějka,, Libor (referee) ; Jančář, Josef (advisor)
Tato dizertační práce je zaměřená na základní výzkum procesů samouspořádávání nanočástic v polymerních kapalinách a na vlastnosti připravených polymerních nanokompozitů s řízenou disperzí nanočástic. Navzdory současnému pokroku v porozumění polymerních nanokompozitech, stále chybí mnohé fundamentální znalosti relaxačních a mechanických vlastností polymerních nanostruktur, které by mohly poskytnout klíčové informace pro návrh hierarchických funkčních kompozitů zpracovatelných aditivními výrobními technikami. Hlavní důraz byl kladen na výzkum vlivu postupu přípravy nanokompozitu na finální stav disperze nanočástic, přípravu řízených nanostruktur – individuálně dispergované nanočástice, řetězci vázáné klastry a kontaktní agregáty - a určení jejich relaxačních a mechanických vlastností. Navíc byly nanočástice využity jako „sondy“ v polymerní matrici, které ovlivňují segmentální uspořádání a relaxační dynamiku polymerních řetězců a mohou poskytnout o těchto dějích zásadní informace. Tento přístup může pomoci nalezení vztahů mezi segmentální dynamikou na nano škále a mechanickými vlastnostmi polymerních skel na makro škále, což je náročný fundamentální problém s extrémní technologickou důležitostí. Neroubované keramické nanočástice a polymerní skla byly použity, aby se minimalizoval vliv silných interakcí mezi nanočásticemi a řetězci. Podrobný výzkum byl vykonán na modelovém systému PMMA/SiO2 a následně rozšířen na systémy s jinými matricemi (PC a PS) a jinými nanočásticemi (ZnO2 and Fe2O3) za účelem zobecnění obdržených výsledků. Byla určena závislost relaxačních a mechanických vlastností (teplota skelného přechodu, reptační čas, modul kaučukovitého plata, počet zapletenin, napětí na mezi kluzu, pokles napětí po mezi kluzu, elastický modul, modul deformačního zpevnění a odezvy při toku za studeny) na nanostruktuře, objemovém zlomku a složení. Získané výsledky byly interpretovány za použití současných modelů. Stanovené relaxační a mechanické vlastnosti byly propojeny, aby poskytli informace o molekulárních deformačních procesech řídících mechanickou odezvu makroskopických kompozitních těles.
Kinetics Studies of Collagen I Self-Assembly
Voldánová, Michaela ; Ondreáš, František (referee) ; Jančář, Josef (advisor)
Collagen, the most abundant protein of connective tissues, in various forms has a wide applications due to their diverse biological and chemical properties. One of the forms are collagen hydrogels, which are considered very suitable material for applications in tissue engineering, because they are able to provide biodegradable scaffolds that its properties correspond with living tissues. These systems are used for example as scaffold for targeted drug delivery with controlled release, in combination with cells can be used for the regeneration and reconstruction of tissues and organs. Heating the aqueous solution of collagen leads to spontaneous self-assembly process to variously distributed fibrillar structures, which are at a later stage of fibrillogenesis prerequisite for creating a three-dimensional supporting network, which is the basic building block of the gel. The resulting properties of the hydrogel depend not only on its structure, but also on the conditions which cause self-assembly process. Hydrogels were performed at 37 ° C and physiological pH. Studied structural variable was the concentration of collagen. So far, for the research of self-assembly were used spectrometric methods, which only provide information about kinetics of morphogenesis. In this work to study the kinetics of collagen I self-assembly were used rheological methods, which additionally give information about viscoelastic properties of the resulting material. The obtained experimental data confirmed two-step process of collagen I fibrillogenesis consisting of nucleation and growth process. Rheological hydrogels collagen behaved as a nonlinear yield-pseudoplastic. An attempt was made to molecular interpretation of the results. Using two-parametric Avrami equation was determined the rate of self-assembly for each concentration of collagen and the value of Avrami exponent determining the shape of produced units. The prepared hydrogels were subjected to increasing shear stresses (strain amplitude, shear rate). Larger amplitudes leads to collapse of the hydrogel structure, which is able to again partially regenerated.
Viscoelasticity of polymer glasses
Ondreáš, František ; Kučera,, Jaroslav (referee) ; Jančář, Josef (advisor)
This work focuses on polymer glasses relaxation behavior. Polymethylmethacrylate was chosen as a typical representative of polymer glasses. Relaxation processes were studied by dynamical mechanical spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry was used as a supplemental analysis. Relaxation process above Tg and high values of rubberlike plateau modulus were observed in thermomechanical spectra. High temperature relaxation transition was studied from the perspective of thermal history, frequency and axial stress dependence and influence of molecular structure was also investigated. Apparent activation energies of studied processes and their axial stress dependence for polymethylmethacrylate were determined. On the basis of obtained data, a hypothesis was developed which connects high temperature relaxation process with molecular process responsible for strain hardening.
Analysis of a-SiOC:H films by selected spectroscopic techniques
Ondreáš, František ; Zmeškal, Oldřich (referee) ; Čech, Vladimír (advisor)
This bachelor thesis deals with preparation of thin plasma polymer films on the basis of tetravinylsilane by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition and film characterization by selected spectroscopic techniques. The theoretical part is a background research about plasma chemistry and spectroscopic methods of characterisation of thin plasma polymer films. The practical part consisted of preparation of two series of samples and their characterization. Prepared thin plasma polymer films were characterized by selected spectroscopic techniques. Thickness and optical constants were determined by spectroscopic elipsometry. Chemical structure was characterized by infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate the possibility of managing physico-chemical properties of thin plasma polymer films on the basis of tetravinylsilane by deposition conditions and thus possibility of preparation materials tailored to a variety of applications.

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