National Repository of Grey Literature 96 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Preparation of human Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 phosphorylated at Ser100 and Ser511
Koupilová, Nicola ; Obšil, Tomáš (advisor) ; Pavlíček, Jiří (referee)
5 Abstract Ca2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinases (CaMKK) are serine/threonine kinases involved in the calcium signaling pathway. Two CaMKK isoforms were described in mammals: CaMKK1 and CaMKK2. The increase in calcium concentrations induces Ca2+ /CaM binding to the C-terminal segment of CaMKK, thus relieving autoinhibition by disrupting the interaction between the autoinhibitory segment and the kinase domain. Active CaMKK then phosphorylate and activate their downstream kinases CaMK1 and CaMK4, and in the case of CaMKK2 also AMPK. The activity of CaMKK is also regulated by phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). This phosphorylation creates two binding motifs recognized by the regulatory 14-3-3 proteins. Previous studies have suggested that the 14-3-3 protein keeps phos- phorylated CaMKK1 in the inhibited state by blocking the dephosphorylation of the inhibitory phosphorylation site and it has been speculated that CaMKK2 is regulated in a similar manner. However, the role of 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of CaMKK2 is unclear. In order to study this protein complex, it is necessary to prepare recombinant CaMKK2 fully phosphorylated at both 14-3-3 binding motifs. The main aim of this bachelor thesis was to optimize the protocol for the phosphorylation of human CaMKK2...
Characterisation of recombinant mouse glutamate carboxypeptidase III
Janoušková, Karolína ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII, PSMA, NAALADase) is transmembrane metalopeptidase and due to cleavage of substrates β-citryl-L-glutamate (BCG), N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) and polyglutamylated folates (Pte-Glun) is being studied as potential therapeutic target. Enzymes, which could compensate for enzyme activity and functions of GCPII, are thus relevant targets of enzymology as well. One of GCPII's homologs with similar enzyme activity is mouse glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII, NAALADase II). Enzymatic cleavage has not been determined using recombinant mouse GCPIII yet. It is important to kinetically characterize mouse GCPIII so that we can compare enzyme activity with human ortolog. Then we can find out whether mouse model is comparable with human. Recombinant mouse GCPIII was kinetically characterized. Kinetic parameters (KM, kcat) for recombinant mouse GCPIII were measured for substrates NAAG and BCG using radioactive assay. Experiments with the substrate Pte-Glu2 were analyzed using HPLC method. Although human GCPIII is more effective than mouse ortolog at clearage of NAAG, both enzymes are comparable during hydrolysis of BCG. Those results can contribute to better understanding of the role of GCPIII in the most commonly used animal model.
Interaction of a surface marker of immune cells with low-molecular weight ligands and their polymer conjugates
Šimonová, Lenka ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee)
Millions of people worldwide die of cancer every year. In the last decade, im- munotherapy offered new treatment options achieving long-lasting remissions in a number of patients. Several new immunotherapy-based drugs have been ap- proved by Food and Drug Administration. However, majority of patients either do not respond or soon relapse. Combination of therapies as well as exploring new immune checkpoints seems promising. This thesis focuses on the new immunotherapeutic target CD73. CD73 is membrane ectonucleotidase, widely expressed on the regulatory leukocytes and on cancer cells. The enzymatically active CD73 contributes to the tumour mi- croenvironment by production of immunosuppressive adenosine. This novel im- mune checkpoint is being intensively studied. This thesis aims on development of new approaches for targeting and inhibition of CD73. Soluble recombinant CD73 (rhCD73) was prepared in mammalian expression system and transfectants stably expressing membrane-bound CD73 were prepared as well. Inhibitors necessary for both of my goals have been designed based on published inhibitor of CD73. Development and evaluation of novel antibody mimetic for CD73 characteri- sation was done. The so-called iBody, HPMA polymer conjugate decorated with CD73 inhibitor for targeting, fluorophore for...
Biophysical characterization of the N-terminal part of protein kinase ASK1.
Honzejková, Karolína ; Obšil, Tomáš (advisor) ; Pavlíček, Jiří (referee)
Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is an apical kinase of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade. Its activity is triggered by various stress stimuli such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or osmotic stress resulting in the activation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase metabolic pathways and leading to inflammation or cell death. Dysregulation of ASK1 is linked to several pathologies such as neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases and cancer, which makes this protein a potential target of therapeutic intervention. The activity of ASK1 is regulated through protein-protein interactions with 14-3-3 proteins and thioredoxin1 being among the most important negative regulators and tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factors being an example of positive regulators. Apart from that, ASK1 is also tightly regulated via oligomerization. Despite continual progress being made, the precise molecular mechanism of ASK1 regulation and the role of ASK1 oligomerization in this process still remains unclear to this day owing to the lack of structural data. Interaction of the N-terminal parts of two protomers of ASK1 dimer is one of the key steps in ASK1 activation. It was shown, that the isolated ASK1 catalytic domain (ASK1-CD) forms stable...
Structural studies of selected signaling protein complexes.
Pšenáková, Katarína ; Obšil, Tomáš (advisor) ; Hrabal, Richard (referee) ; Maloy Řezáčová, Pavlína (referee)
The ability of proteins to bind other molecules in response to various stimuli in their microenvironment serves as a platform for extensive regulatory networks coordinating downstream cell actions. The correct function of these signaling pathways depends mostly on noncovalent interactions often affecting the structure of proteins and protein complexes. Understanding the molecular mechanism of a protein function in cell signaling therefore often depends on our knowledge of a three-dimensional structure. In this doctoral thesis, I present the work that led to the understanding of several protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions implicated in cell signaling at the molecular level. I applied nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, small angle X-ray scattering and other biophysical methods to determine the molecular basis of inhibition of four signaling proteins: Calcium/Calmodulin (Ca2+ /CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2); protease Caspase-2; Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3, and Apoptosis signal-regulating protein kinase 1 (ASK1). In particular, I investigated the distinct roles of 14-3-3 and Ca2+ /CaM in the regulation of CaMKK2 activity. I also studied in detail the mechanism how 14-3-3 interferes with the caspase-2 oligomerization and its nuclear localization as well as...
Glutamate Carboxypeptidase II - Structural and Biochemical Characterization and Structure-Assisted Drug Design
Ptáček, Jakub ; Bařinka, Cyril (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee) ; Brynda, Jiří (referee)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a human membrane-bound metallopeptidase discovered more than 30 years ago. It has attracted attention of biomedical scientists thanks to its diverse tissue expression profile and different biological functions. GCPII is detected on the surface of astrocytes in both central and peripheral nervous systems where it is responsible for the cleavage of N-acetyl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG), the most abundant mammalian peptidic neurotransmitter. Glutamate, one of the hydrolytic products, is a potent excitatory neurotransmitter and its overproduction has been shown to be responsible for cell death in various neurological disorders by a so-called glutamate excitotoxicity mechanism. Together with the fact that NAAG acts neuroprotectively it has been postulated (and later confirmed) that GCPII inhibition has a therapeutic potential in such disorders. Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men and despite its slow progression it is prone to metastasize thus posing a life threat. GCPII has been found to be overexpressed in prostate tumor cells compared to the healthy tissue (therefore it is also termed prostate-specific membrane antigen - PSMA) thus representing an excellent biomarker of PCa validated by many publications and clinical studies....
Development of analytical tools for quantification and screening for inhibitors of glutamate carboxypeptidases II and III
Navrátil, Václav ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee) ; Šedo, Aleksi (referee)
Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) usually called prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is membrane bound metallopeptidase expressed mainly in prostate carcinoma (PCa). Agents targeting GCPII suitable for both imaging and treatment of PCa are in development and they show promising results in advanced clinical trials. Some studies showed that GCPII may serve also as PCa blood serum marker, but this has not been validated due to the lack of methods suitable for accurate detection of GCPII in human blood. Moreover, GCPII is also expressed in brain, where it cleaves inhibitory N-acetyl-α-L- aspartyl-L-glutamate (NAAG) to release excitatory L-glutamate and GCPII inhibition has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of several neuropathies. Tight binding inhibitors of GCPII have been identified by rational design, but all have poor bioavailability and thus cannot be used in clinics. Identifying new scaffolds by 'brute force' screening methods is thus essential; however, no such method for GCPII has been developed so far. Glutamate carboxypeptidase III (GCPIII) is also expressed in brain and cleaves NAAG. It is thus an important protein for understanding of GCPII function as well as GCPII targeting in medicine. Here, we focused on development of novel methods for quantification of both...
Study of regulatory mechanisms of selected protein kinases
Petrvalská, Olívia ; Obšil, Tomáš (advisor) ; Jiráček, Jiří (referee) ; Schneider, Bohdan (referee)
Through binding interactions with more than 300 binding partners, 14-3-3 proteins regulate large amount of biologically relevant processes, such as apoptosis, cell cycle progression, signal transduction or metabolic pathways. The research discussed in this dissertation thesis was focussed on investigating the role of 14-3-3 proteins in the regulation of two selected protein kinases ASK1 and CaMKK2. The main goal was to elucidate the mechanisms by which phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding regulate functions of these protein kinases using various biochemical and biophysical methods, such as site-directed mutagenesis, enzyme activity measurements, analytical ultracentrifugation, small-angle X-ray scattering, chemical crosslinking, nuclear magnetic resonance and fluorescence spectroscopy. A structural model of the complex between the catalytic domain of protein kinase ASK1 with 14-3-3ζ, which was calculated using the small-angle X-ray scattering and chemical crosslinking data, suggested that this complex is conformationally heterogeneous in solution. This structural model together with data from time-resolved fluorescence and nuclear magnetic resonance suggested that the 14-3-3ζ protein interacts with the catalytic domain of ASK1 in the close vicinity of its active site, thus indicating that the complex...
Development of high-throughput screening assay for the identification of inhibitors targeting influenza A polymerase
Karlukova, Elena ; Konvalinka, Jan (advisor) ; Obšil, Tomáš (referee)
Influenza virus A circulates in birds and mammals and causes severe infectious disease that affects from 3 to 5 million people each year. There are two classes of anti-influenza drugs currently available: neuraminidase and M2 channel inhibitors. However, increasing resistance against these two types of inhibitors along with the potential emergence of new viral strains and unpredictability of pandemic outbreaks emphasize an unmet need for new types of inhibitors. RNA-dependent influenza polymerase serves as a novel promising target for the development of anti-influenza medications. The aim of this master thesis is to develop in vitro high-throughput assays for screening of compounds targeting influenza RNA polymerase, particularly, its cap binding and endonuclease domains. For cap-binding domain the screening is based on DIANA (DNA-linked Inhibitor ANtibody Assay) method that was recently developed in our laboratory; for endonuclease domain, the method is based on AlphaScreen technology. For the purposes of the methods development, recombinant cap binding domain of PB2 subunit and N-terminal endonuclease domain of PA subunit of influenza polymerase were expressed with appropriate fusion tags and purified using affinity and gel permeation chromatography. The probes for the screening assays were...

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