National Repository of Grey Literature 13 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Development and Validation of Methods for Typing of Bacteria by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
Chudějová, Kateřina ; Hrabák, Jaroslav (advisor) ; Dolejská, Monika (referee) ; Nyč, Otakar (referee)
1 ABSTRACT Healthcare-associated infections represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings. The risk of nosocomial infection differs significantly in different group of patients, depending on the character of their primary illness, the co-morbidities, the type of care provided, the length of hospitalization, or the medical procedures used. Artificial surfaces such as central venous catheters, shunts, urinary catheters, valve and joint replacements or controlled lung ventilation play a major role. The majority of nosocomial infections is caused by several representative of Enterobacteriaceæ family, Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., or some Gram-positives, especially Staphylococcus and Enterococcus spp. This is largely due to their ability to retain and transfer different types of resistance to antibiotics. The identification and subtyping of these pathogenic microorganisms is an essential tool of modern public health infectious disease surveillance not only for appropriate and efficient treatment of infections, but also in case of an outbreak. Understanding clonal continuity among investigated strains is essential to determine the source and routes of infections, confirm or rule out outbreaks, trace cross-transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens, or recognize virulent...
Detection of resistance to echinocandins antifungal agents in Candida sp. using molecular biological methods
Vitáčková, Petra ; Chrenková, Vanda (advisor) ; Nyč, Otakar (referee)
Invasive diseases due to Candida sp., especially by C. albicans, represent very severe complication in immunocompromised patients. More over the presence of antifungal resistance leads to delay of targeted antifungal therapy and increases morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. Therefore the aim was to introduce a rapid method of caspofungin resistance detection by the mass spectrometry MALDITOF. The tests were performed by the use of reference strain C. albicans CCM8261 and caspofungin resistant strain C. albicans M30. Different settings of mass spectrometer were used for the measuring. The obtained spectra were evaluated by correlation and cluster analysis (dendrogram). By cluster analysis it was possible to differenciate the susceptible and the resistant strain. During the analysis we have found, that mass spectrometer settings are unique for each machine and we cannot use the published data. We did not succeed to determine the similarity by correlation analysis. The quality of obtained spectra was quite poor, probably because of non-suitable culture medium used in the test The cluster analysis confirmed the possibility of resistance detection by mass spectrometry; nevertheless more testing profiting from current experience is needed for introduction of this test in routine. Powered by TCPDF...
The detection of factors virulence and resistance genes bacterial pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis
Jandová, Oldřiška ; Melter, Oto (advisor) ; Nyč, Otakar (referee)
Cystic fibrosis is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder, which is caused by mutation in CFTR gene (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator). This gene encodes protein with the same name, which is responsible for pathogenesis of CF. Cystic fibrosis is characteristic for frequent infection of respiratory system, which causes, destruction of lung tissue. These infections are characterized by occurrence of typical bacterial pathogenes, for example: S. aureus, P. aeruginosa etc. S. aureus is one of the most typical opportunistic pathogens, which causes serious difficulties in patients with the cystic fibrosis. Strains of S. aureus are characterized by production of multiple virulence factors and resistance to broad spectrum of antibiotics. Besides common mechanisms of resistance there is also possibility of emergence of so called Small Colony Variants in chronically infected patients. These resistant subpopulation is relatively common among S. aureus isolates of patients with CF. The aim of this work was to study isolates from three patients with cystic fibrosis, who are chronically infected by S. aureus. Our goal was to determine changes in the pattern of the antibiotic resistance and occurrence of virulence factors together with description of SCV strains. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
The introduction of diagnosis of new bacterial pathogens Inquilinus and Pandoraea isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis and determining their sensitivity to antibiotics
Šulcová, Romana ; Melter, Oto (advisor) ; Nyč, Otakar (referee)
Cystic fibrosis is one of the most common autosomal recessive hereditary disease. Nowadays, people, with this disease, because early diagnosis and treatment of other associated symptoms a better prognosis than a few years ago. CF is a disease that is subject to mutation of the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator) on the seventh chromosome. Defect in the CFTR protein leads to failure of resorption and secretion of electrolytes chloride channel and thereby creating viscous mucus in the lungs, which is the main cause of chronic bacterial infections of the lower airways. Among the most common pathogens causing severe respiratory infections in CF patients include: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia complex. In patients with CF is now showing in the airways of new bacterial species whose biological properties are not yet known and their role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease and epidemiology are not exactly known. In these days their detection is used by specific amplification methods, or sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Emerging pathogens such as the genus Pandoraea and Inguilinus that belong non-fermenting Gram-negative groups in the rods, and therefore are often exchange for other bacterial species that are phenotypically similar to them. In the...
Resistance to antimicrobial therapy of Helicobacter pylori strains
Moravcová, Monika ; Keil, Radan (advisor) ; Nyč, Otakar (referee)
Helicobacter pylori (hereinafter referred to as H. pylori) is a gram-negative bacteria which colonises the human stomach mucosa. Its role in the aethiopathogenesis of chronic gastritis, ulcer disorders of the gastroduodenum and MALT-lymphoma has been clearly demonstrated, and in connection with the occurrence of stomach cancer it has been indicated by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a class I carcinogen. H. pylori infection can be detected from samples of stomach mucosa taken in an endoscopic examination (rapid urease test, microscopic examination, culture), or the non-invasive method can be used (13 C-Urea Breath Test or H. Pylori stool antigen test - HpSA). Effective therapy of H. pylori infection resides in the administration of a combination of antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. In recent years the resistance of bacterial strains to used antibiotics has been increasing on a worldwide scale, and we can also observe this trend in the case of H. pylori. If the level of resistance exceeds 20 % for clarithromycin and 40 % for metronidazole, these antibiotics are not recommended for the treatment of an infection caused by this bacteria. In a group of 61 patients at the Department of Internal Medicine at the University Hospital Motol who had undergone an endoscopic examination of the...
Clostridium difficile - Importance and current options of laboratory diagnostics
Partlová, Simona ; Nyč, Otakar (advisor) ; Bártová, Markyta (referee)
This thesis mainly describes the question of Clostridium difficile diagnostic service. The first part briefly describes the characteristic of this bacterium. Further, the paper outlines common properties of the bacterium, the causes and manifestations of the diseases that it implicates and current opportunities of the laboratory service. The practical part of bachelors work deals with examination of toxin detection C.difficile in stool specimens, which was in case of positive result completed by cultivation. The cultivation and following Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (AST) is not routine task carried out in every clinical laboratory. PCR ribotyping is relatively new method that is provided rarely on the present. Generally, 195 patients have been tested in laboratory of Department of Medical Microbiology in Motol for Clostridium difficile toxin inherency in stool. Overall 30 samples have been tested as positive. The positive samples have been cultivated on special soil just for Clostridium difficile to acquire a clean culture. After that, the metronidazole susceptibility has been obtained from these gained isolates. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Comparing amplification and non-amplification methods of HPV detection in clinical samples
Jarolímková, Pavlína ; Nyč, Otakar (advisor) ; Dražďáková, Marcela (referee)
Cervical carcinoma is the second most frequent malignancy in women world wide. Infection of human papillomaviruses has been recognized as an etiological factor. HPV infection is transmitted sexually. Nowadays, it is considered as the most frequent sexually transmitted infection. The objective of this bachelor work and one of the objectives of grant IGA MZ NC 5959 was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of the polymerase chain reaction method and the nonamplification method hc2 for detection of HPV DNA in cervical specimens of woman with suspicious cytologic findings. Many commercially available detection kits are based on the PCR method, which is very sensitive. Nowadays, the most commercially utilized kit in the routine laboratories in the Czech Republic is hc2 HPV is frequently being used for detection of HPV infection in routine virology laboratories. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Laboratory options in diagnostics of bacterial meningitis
Fárová, Marcela ; Nyč, Otakar (advisor) ; Hobstová, Jiřina (referee)
The mutual companson of the methods used for the diagnostics of bacterial meningitides was the aim of this work. The bacterial meningitis is a very serious disease and its laboratory diagnostics should include such a spectrum of the examinations, which guarantees the highest posibility of discovering the pathogens. The efficiency of latex agglutination, classic bacterial cultivation and peR of Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae was compared. The peR enables the direct prove of DNA for the pathogens mentioned above. The results confirmed the contribution of peR that is rapid, specific and sensitive. It was proved in 5 cases, where the peR was positive, while the other tests were false negative. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)

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