National Repository of Grey Literature 238 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Provedení průzkumových prací jako podkladu pro pozemkové úpravy
NOVOTNÝ, Jiří
The bachelor's thesis deals with the explanation of basic terms from the area of land treatment and in the practical part focuses on the cadastral area Rájov. It explores the aims of land treatment, its financing and it remembers the historical development of land treatment. The practical part summarizes the analysis of the survey works carried out in the selected area. It contains the characteristics of natural conditions, especially geological, geomorphologic, hydrologic, climatic and soil conditions. The analysis includes description and evaluation of the state of the soil, hydrological conditions, the traffic system and landscape and its protection. Finally, this thesis contains a few suggestions, how to prevent irreversible damage of the landscape.
The role of adrenergic signaling in cardioprotection induced by adaptation to chronic hypoxia
Hahnová, Klára ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Polák, Jan (referee) ; Babula, Petr (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases are currently one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the Western world. Adaptation to chronic hypoxia can contribute to the improvement of ischemic tolerance of myocardium but exact molecular mechanisms leading to the development of a cardioprotective phenotype are still unclear. There are some indications that point to the possible role of β-adrenergic signaling in these processes. In the first part of the thesis, we examined the effect of protective continuous (CNH; 24 h/day) and nonprotective intermittent (INH; 23 h/day hypoxia, 1 h/day reoxygenation) normobaric hypoxia on β-adrenergic signaling in the right (RV) and left ventricles (LV) of Wistar rats. Both hypoxic models led to decrease in the number of β1-adrenergic receptors (β1-ARs) in the RV. There were no significant changes in β-ARs in LV preparations. Although adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity stimulated through Gs proteins was decreased in the RV and increased in the LV after adaptation to CNH and INH, there were no significant changes in the expression of dominant AC 5/6 isoforms. Expression of Gs proteins was decreased in RV in both hypoxic models. These results suggest that chronic normobaric hypoxia may have a strong effect on myocardial β-adrenergic signaling without differences between...
The role of autophagy in neurodegenerative processes
Marková, Veronika ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Čermák, Vladimír (referee)
The characteristics of many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease is the accumulation of proteins and damaged organelles in the cytoplasm. Unfortunately, they are not sufficiently eliminated by autophagy. The basal autophagy, that maintains the cellular homeostasis, is disturbed in neurodegeneration. The process of autophagy becomes saturated and unable to remove all the toxic substances. Therefore, other degradation mechanisms are activated, aiming to restore the homeostasis. However, the neuronal cells are damaged under certain conditions leading to their death. The reduction in the number of neurons in specific brain areas may cause severe ataxias and dementias. Better understanding of autophagocytosis and its role v pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases may contribute to more effective treatment of these serious diseases in the future. Key words: autophagy, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease
Neurobiology and toxicity of new psychoactive substances from hallucinogens class
Zmátlo, Vít ; Leca, Nikola (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee)
Main focus of this thesis are the novel synthetic psychoactive substances from hallucinogens class. The first part expands the phenomenon of hallucinogens and describes its general mechanisms. Serotonergic system is emphasised with focus on 5-HT2A receptor as a main moderator of hallucinogenic aktivity. Next part enlightens the issue of new psychoactive substances and elaborates on two main classes of hallucinogens - tryptamines and phenylethylamines, with epmhasis on their synthetic derivates. There is described the form of occurence, relationship between chemical structure and biological activity, and current knowledge of neurobiology toxicity of those substances. Key words: New psychoactive substances, hallucinogens, serotonergic system, neurobiology, toxicity
Analysis of oxidative stress markers in rat brain: the effect of maternal separation
Pallag, Gergely ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Vodička, Martin (referee)
Adverse events that cause stress during the early stages of life may alter the normal development of the brain and neuroendocrine system and increase the vulnerability of the individual to various disorders. Chronic stress and subsequent releasing of stress mediators can lead to oxidative stress and cell damage. The first aim of this work was to determine selected oxidative stress markers in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum after the exposure of rats to early life stress. To model the stressful situation, we used maternal separation of the offspring for three hours a day during the first three weeks of life. We choose reduced glutathione, protein carbonyls, lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides as typical markers. These markers were determined in the brains of rats aged 22 days. Any significant changes were found in the levels of the studied markers after maternal separation. Damage to brain cells may also be reflected in behavior. Studies of numerous neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases have indicated that oxidative stress is a promising candidate for inducing changes at the cellular level. The second aim of this work was to monitor the behavior of rats by the light/dark box test after maternal separation along with administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a drug with...
Protein profiling, metabolic enzymes and transmembrane signaling in the heart of spontaneously hypertensive SHR-Tg19 rat
Manakov, Dmitry ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Kuncová, Jitka (referee) ; Kalous, Martin (referee)
Cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of deaths both worldwide and in the Czech Republic. Main factors contributing heart disease development, aside age and sex, are obesity, high blood pressure and high blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) was developed and used for search of genetic determinants of these traits. This commonly used rat model develops hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance naturally which is caused by aberrant Cd36 fatty acid translocase gene. Previous studies have shown that rescue of Cd36 performed in the transgenic SHR-Tg19 strain enhances cardiac beta-adrenergic system, slightly increases heart mass and leads to higher susceptibility to arrhythmias. The present thesis had two main aims: 1) To investigate whether and how a transgenic rescue of Cd36 in SHR affects protein composition, mitochondrial function and activity of selected metabolic enzymes of the heart. 2) To study the expression and distribution of selected components of beta-adrenergic signaling system in lipid raft isolated form membranes using the TX-100 detergent. We set to compare two commonly used proteomic approaches, 2D electrophoresis with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and label-free LC-MS. The results did not reveal any overlap between...
Analysis of results of particle phenomena modeling in computer games
Novotný, Jiří ; Boldyš, Jiří (advisor)
The main subject of this thesis is to design a method that is able to compare the outputs of a manually set up particle system with a video template of a simulated particle phenomenon. For the sake of simplicity, this work is focused exclusively to smoke effects and its comparisons. Specifically, descriptors depicting the color scheme of the examined input videos are proposed as well as the shape descriptors and time variability descriptors, which are based on the image segmentation method called Alpha Matting. This method is able to distinguish foreground objects from the background, while the foreground objects are described together with their transparency. Video template recordings captured specially for the purpose of this work are included. At the end, the resulting method is supported by an example of the gradually improving smoke effect simulation. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking in mammalian cells
Hemelíková, Katarína ; Horák, Martin (advisor) ; Novotný, Jiří (referee) ; Valeš, Karel (referee)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are a subclass of glutamate receptors that play an essential role in mediating excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The activation of NMDA receptors plays a key role in brain development and memory formation. Abnormal regulation of NMDA receptors plays a critical role in the etiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders. NMDA receptors form a heterotetrameric complex composed of GluN1, GluN2(A-D) and GluN3(A, B) subunits. The NMDA receptors surface expression is regulated at multiple levels including early processing (synthesis, subunit assembly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) processing, intracellular trafficking to the cell surface), internalization, recycling and degradation. NMDA receptors are regulated by the availability of GluN subunits within the ER, the presence of ER retention and export signals, and posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation and palmitoylation. However, the role of N-glycosylation in regulating of NMDA receptor processing has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanisms of regulation of surface expression and functional properties of NMDA receptors. We used a combination of molecular biology, microscopy, biochemistry and...
Studies on the molecular mechanisms of cardioprotective effects of morphine
Škrabalová, Jitka ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Nováková, Olga (referee) ; Hlaváčková, Markéta (referee)
Acute and chronic morphine administration can significantly reduce ischemia- reperfusion injury of the rat heart. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the protective effect of morphine are not yet fully elucidated. Concurrently, there is a lack of information about the effects of the long-term action of morphine on heart tissue. Therefore, in the first part of the project, we studied the effect of long-term administration of high doses of morphine (10 mg/kg/day, 10 days) on rat heart tissue. In the second part of the project, we investigated the effect of 1 mM morphine on viability and redox state of rat cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 that was influenced by oxidative stress elicited by exposure to 300 μM tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP). Our experiments have shown that long-term morphine administration affected neither the amount nor the affinity of myocardial β-adrenergic receptors (β-AR), but almost doubled the number of the dominant isoforms of myocardial adenylyl cyclase (AC) V/VI and led to supersensitization of AC. At the same time, proteomic analyses revealed that long-term morphine administration was associated with significant changes in the left ventricular proteome. In particular, there was an increase in the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP). Increased expression of HSP27...
New synthetic drugs and the mechanisms underlying their effects
Kozová, Johana ; Novotný, Jiří (advisor) ; Petrásek, Tomáš (referee)
New synthetic drugs are a large group of addictive substances currently synthesized for the purpose of circumventing legislation. Most often, they are created by a relatively slight change of the structure of previously banned substances. Any drugs and their long-term use have a detrimental effect on the life of the individual and society as a whole. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of their action is important for the treatment of complications caused by them and may also serve to develop drugs for treatment of certain diseases. This bachelor thesis deals with the current knowledge about the mechanism of action of new synthetic drugs - synthetic cathinones, especially mephedrone, methylone and MDPV. In the paper, the mechanism of action of amphetamine is also presented for comparison. Keywords: drugs, synthetic cathinones, mephedrone, methylone, MDPV

National Repository of Grey Literature : 238 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
30 NOVOTNÝ, Jakub
84 NOVOTNÝ, Jan
4 NOVOTNÝ, Jaromír
17 NOVOTNÝ, Jaroslav
25 NOVOTNÝ, Jiří
14 NOVOTNÝ, Josef
1 Novotný, J.
30 Novotný, Jakub
84 Novotný, Jan
1 Novotný, Jan Philipp
2 Novotný, Jan,
4 Novotný, Jaromír
17 Novotný, Jaroslav
1 Novotný, Jindřich
14 Novotný, Josef
1 Novotný, Jáchym
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