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Polymeric nanofibrous scaffolds reinforced with diamond and ceramic nanoparticles for bone tissue engineering
Bačáková, Lucie ; Pařízek, Martin ; Staňková, Ľubica ; Novotná, Katarína ; Douglas, T.E.L. ; Brady, M. A. ; Kromka, Alexander ; Potocký, Štěpán ; Stránská, D.
Three types of nanofibrous scaffolds were prepared by electrospining: (1) poly(lactide-co-glycoside) (PLGA) scaffolds reinforced with 23 wt.% of diamond nanoparticles (DNPs), (2) poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) scaffolds with DNPs in concentration ranging from from 0.4 wt.% to 12.3 wt.%, and (3) PLLA scaffolds with 5 wt.% or 15 wt.% of hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles. The diameter of the nanofibers ranged between 160 and 729 nm. The nanofibers with nanoparticles were thicker and the void spaces among them were smaller. Mechanical properties of the nanoparticle-loaded scaffolds were better, as demonstrated by a rupture test in scaffolds with DNPs and by a creep behavior test in scaffolds with HAp. On PLGA scaffolds with DNPs, the human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells adhered in similar numbers and grew with similar kinetics as on pure PLGA scaffolds. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells grew faster and reached higher population densities on PLGA-DNP scaffolds. However, on PLLA-based scaffolds, the activity of mitochondrial enzymes and concentration of osteocalcin in MG-63 cells decreased with increasing DNP concentration. On the other hand, the metabolic activity of MG-63 cells and content of osteocalcin in these cells were positively correlated with the HAp concentration in PLLA scaffolds. Thus, PLGA nanofibers with 23 wt% of DNPs and PLLA nanofibers with 5 and particularly 15 wt.% of HAp seem to be promising for bone tissue engineering.

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