National Repository of Grey Literature 9 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Development of the phenomenon of renewable energy sources and their support in the Czech Republic
Hamzová, Kateřina ; Kaczor, Pavel (advisor) ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee)
The introductory part of the thesis deals primarily with the use of energy in the history of human society. The paper presents not only different types of renewable resources but also explains some important facts about these resources. The main objective of this paper is to quantify the level of financial support for renewable energy sources in the Czech Republic by 2016, with a forecast for 2020, and to analyse the impact on the price of electricity for the end customer. The paper shows a clear picture of individual payments of consumers for electricity consumption in Prague using the three most common tariffs of PRE, jsc. A partial objective is to map the historical, legislative and political developments in the field of renewable energy sources in the EU and the Czech Republic. The paper describes different support possibilities for renewable energy sources including related subsidy for the energy sector. The final part of the paper focuses on overall evaluation of the current situation of renewable resources and gives proposals for change.
Energy Intensity Reduction of a Professional Laundry Care Process
Bobák, Petr ; Klemeš,, Jiří (referee) ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee) ; Stehlík, Petr (advisor)
Doctoral thesis deals with professional laundry care process and reduction of energy intensity and use of other operational commodities used in the process. Professional laundry care process is a specific energy intensive process; its purpose is to re-establish original properties of the now dirty laundry so that it may fulfil its functions again. This is basically a recycling and regeneration process comprising many sub-operations. Key operation is washing of the laundry in a washing bath, which removes impurities from the laundry. This thesis describes the most common technology of impurities removal, which is washing in a hot washing bath in cooperation with mechanical work and detergents. However, all of the described procedures may also be applied on alternative technologies, such as ozone washing, washing with low-temperature enzymes and ultrasound. Water is applied in all these technologies as a soaking agent. Water must have appropriate properties and must be removed from the laundry after the washing process in subsequent operations (drying, ironing, and pressing). Theoretical introduction of the thesis describes professional laundry care process in detail, and continues with mathematical modelling of the process and its main sub-operations (washing, drying) using mass and heat balance, and data acquisition and their application in research and development. Thesis further describes design of information system on the basis of relational database controlled by web application. This system enables to organize data and information from various sources – measured experimental data, data concerning measurement devices, operational records of machines, etc. Thesis further proposes how to evaluate and reduce energy intensity of a process. Descriptions are validated by examples and case studies. Key section of the thesis is a chapter describing experimental infrastructure. This infrastructure integrates several instalments of laundry equipment and is a fully functional operation of industrial laundry facility with 500kg/shift capacity, which serves as a model of energy intensive process. Sophisticated infrastructure and data acquisition system allows measuring wide spectrum of physical entities and examining factors influencing energy intensity of processes, and relationships between these factors as well as effectiveness of various savings measures in real life facilities.
Design of Methods for Cleaning of Gas at Gasification of Stalk
Moskalík, Jiří ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee) ; Kabát, Viktor (referee) ; Bébar, Ladislav (referee) ; Fiedler, Jan (advisor)
Due to the continuous growth of energy consumption it is required that development in the energy sector is focused on renewable energy sources. Another possibility how to reduce the consumption of primary energy resources is also searching for new and non-traditional fuels. The biomass is the best and potentially expandable renewable energy source in geographic conditions in the Czech Republic. The energy usage of biomass has experienced a significant increase in recent years, however, even in the big energy power plant. This increase in consumption made mainly from wood biomass a shortage fuel, and it began to raise its price. The consumers of biomass fuel are starting to look for a different type of fuel at this time. Stalk and slightly contaminated biomass are representatives of these non-traditional fuels. Stalks are mostly annual plants grown primarily for subsistence. Waste parts of these plants can be utilized for production of energy. The characteristic temperatures of stalk ash have relatively low values. Sintering of ash in a device is one of the obstacles for energy usage of stalk. Sintering of ash brings a number of operational problems at power facilities. Therefore, the part of a research is dedicated to the melting of ash. The thermal gasification is one of the possibilities how to use biomass efficiently. Gasification can be understood as the thermo-chemical conversion of solid fuel into a different state, in this case the gaseous state. The combustion process is generally more manageable for gaseous fuels. Due to this process ower emissions of undesirable compounds at the output of the combustion device can be achieved. Thermal gasification process takes place under stochiometric access of oxidant. The gas with low heating value is on the outlet from gasification process. The main components of produced gas are hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane. The final gas contains also a lot of undesirable constituents, which make this gas disadvantaged in energy. These constituents are neutral components that dilute gas only, and pollutants as dust, tar and compounds of sulfur and chlorine. These pollutants complicate further use of the generated gas. The tar compounds together with dust causing build-up on the conveyor pipe and also on the combustion equipment, which are using this generated gas. The quality of produced gas is increases by another reprocessing and cleaning. The purified gas can be used for cogeneration of energy and burn it in internal combustion engines or gas turbines. Other possibility is typical usage for heating according to the needs of technology. The atmospheric fluidized bed gasification reactor Biofluid 100th was built for experimental purposes in the laboratories of the Energy Institute. The thesis is focused on thermal gasification of stalk and other non-traditional fuels in Biofluid device. The aim is to achieve a stable gasification process of stalk and thereby verify the possibility of stalk use as fuel for technology Biofluid. Subsequent aim is design of methods for cleaning the raw gas from the tar compounds. The research is focused on the secondary gas cleaning methods due to the requirements of high purity of the resulting gas.
Heavy Metals Transfer during Waste Incineration
Karásek, René ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee) ; Kabát, Viktor (referee) ; Skála, Zdeněk (advisor)
The municipal solid waste (MSW) is a heterogeneous material that consists mainly of organic and mineral substances, metals and water. After thermal treatment this waste redistributes into individual incineration products. This also holds for the metals contained in the waste. This thesis deals with the behaviour of heavy metals and their compounds during the incineration process. Determining the percentage content of heavy metals from the waste entering the process of thermal utilization is practically impossible. The principal aim is to determine the amount of each heavy metal in the MSW from the incineration products. The opening sections of the thesis deal with waste, options of incineration, flue gas cleaning processes and also with the problems of the heavy metals in the environment. The next section introduces recent developments, what possibilities there are for determining the heavy metals in the waste and methods of data evaluation. The experimental part of the thesis introduces of a four-day measuring process that was conducted at the MSW incineration plant SAKO, Inc. The samples of the individual products of incineration were taken and after the laboratory analysis the results for the selected heavy metals were processed. The results include statistical data analysis.
Syngas Cleaning with Using Metal Catalysts
Baláš, Marek ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee) ; Kabát, Viktor (referee) ; Skála, Zdeněk (advisor)
Gasification of biomass is a one of the several technologies for energy production from biomass. Biomass is a promising renewable source of energy and is in a centre of attention of energy industry not only in the Czech Republic, but also in the EU and in the world. Gasification is a thermo chemical transformation of fuel with access of understoicheiometric amount of oxidizer which produces gas of low heating value. Its main combustible components are hydrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. Produced gas may be further used in power and heating plants. Besides combustible and neutral components, gas also contains pollutants such as sulphur compounds, chlorine compounds, ash and tar. It is tar which is considered to be the underbelly of gasification as it causes, along with ash, fouling in transport tracks and terminal equipment, and blocks direct application of gas. This dissertation thesis presents design of filter for elimination of tar from the gas generated in fluid gasification equipment. This work is closely related to current research at Energy Institute at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Brno University of Technology. First part deals with theoretical background of this issue. Biomass properties are mentioned in relation to gasification. Types of gasification equipment are described and principle of gasification including chemical reactions is given in detail. Special part is dedicated to pollutants in the gas, especially to production of tar and its properties, which is important for consequent work. Main focus is on possibilities of catalytic cleaning of gas from tar. Principle of tar decomposition is described and types and properties of catalysts are given. Part of the thesis tackles the issue of real operations and loss of efficiency of catalyst due to sulphur compounds, sintering and carbon fouling. Based on experience and analysis in the first part of the thesis, concept of elimination of tar from gas was laid out. In addition to that, method for measurement at Biofluid 100 experimental unit was outlined and filter for testing of industrial catalysts using metal was designed. Series of experiments were further conducted in order to find out efficiency of three opted catalysts for tar decomposition. Results of these experiments are described in detail and assessed in the conclusion of this thesis which also contains outline for economic assessment of method of gas cleaning using catalysts.
Purification of Producer Gas in Biomass Gasification using Carbon Materials
Al-Dury, Sausan Salem Kadam ; Klemeš,, Jiri (referee) ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee) ; Skála, Zdeněk (advisor)
This work is dealing with the utilization of biomass feed stocks and wooden residue for gasification process to produce syn-gas suitable for the implementation of power plants for electricity generation and problem of gas production suitable for further chemical and energy purpose discussing the suitable practical purification methods, given that the complexity of theme and project which carried out through detailed analysis. Since the obtained gas has many types of unwanted contaminants. It was necessary to derive an effective cleaning method for gas purification from chemical contaminants especially tars components. The discussion of the definitions and methods for the determination of gas unwanted components and their removal technologies on the basis of the knowledge of data, collecting and analysis carried out through an experimental massive approach. The theoretical analysis of the gasification process for an effective tar reduction in the produced gas has been studied as well. Since the quality requirements for internal combustion engines, gas turbines and fuel cells using the primary measurement methods cannot be achieved for gas production, this work aimed removing different particulates and tar. The main emphasis is placed on the methods of high cleaning taking in account the chemical and thermal specifications of the gas which is based on the utilization of three different kinds of carbon materials successfully and efficiently char coal, black coke and active carbon for tar removal which has a major impact on the process parameters. The analysis was responding with the mechanism and the techniques of minimizing the resultant allowable concentration by using a suitable materials and verifying the operation conditions without affecting the gas thermal efficiency. The highlights of the theoretical and experimental work has been drawn up by a high concept cleaning allowing the production of a pure gas having a quality that meets the modern technical requirements for electricity generation. Functionality the most efficient cleaning methods were based in the current project for tar reduction on the quantity of tar removed, the materials used for tar cracking and the conditions of the experimental work as well. For a successful application, some proposals have been settled for industrial applications of gas cleaning.
Syngas Cleaning in Hot Catalytic Filter
Lisý, Martin ; Noskievič, Pavel (referee) ; Bébar, Ladislav (referee) ; Kabát, Viktor (referee) ; Skála, Zdeněk (advisor)
Disertation thesis deals with development of hot dolomite filter for the purposes of cleaning of gas polluted by biomass and waste gasification with ash and tar as well as sulphur and chlorine compounds as main pollutants. Gas is then cleaned so that it can be utilized in cogeneration units with combustion engines. This supports advancement of gasification techniques using decentralized power and heat generation especially for design of small scale units. Concrete aims of this thesis are stated in chapter 2. Experimental fluid gasification stend Biofluid 100 has been in operations at Brno University of Technology (BUT) since 2000 and it helps research of biomass and waste gasification. Development of the filter initially utilized needs and experience with the utility during cooperation of BUT and ATEKO Hradec Králové. Water scrubber was used for gas cleaning, however, this method proved to be ineffective. Alternative solutions were considered. Based on literature search, natural catalysts with limestone basis were opted. First part of the thesis presents literature search of this issue. Historic development and description of gasification process are briefly discussed as well as elementary classification of gasification generators. This part is followed by chapters dealing with gas pollutants. Tar – the most significant pollutant – is discussed in a separate chapter which presents tar formation, its classification, characteristics and methods for its removal. Brief summary of requirements on gas properties with respect to its utilization in various applications (especially in cogeneration units) follows. Other part of the literature search part focuses on methods of removal of tar from gas, especially on catalyst methods. Dolomite characteristics, description of dolomite calcination as well as simplified kinetic model of tar cracking using dolomite are presented. Based on literature search, laboratory and verification equipment was designed for the purposes of dolomite properties testing. Equipment description as well as description of experimental stend Biofluid 100 where the experimental tests were carried out can be found in introduction of the experimental part. This is followed by a complete description of pilot equipment design of hot dolomite filter with general description of experimental work process, brief characteristics of the fuel and catalytic material used. Final part of the work comprises of experiment results that were carried out on the pilot equipment. Focus is on efficiency of tar removal in connection with operation temperature, amount of catalytist and material used. Influence of these parameters on gas composition and energy intensity of the whole process under these conditions is mentioned as well. Possibility of autonomous unit operations without electricity heating is briefly outlined. Summary of the most significant results including the potential of future hot dolomite filter development is stated the final part of the thesis.

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