National Repository of Grey Literature 27 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Drug services in recreational setting - current situation, needs and barriers of further development
Jičinská, Lucie ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Janíková, Barbara (referee)
Despite the fact that the prevalence of drug use in nightlife setngs is signifcantly higher than in the general populaton (EMCDDA, 2015), addictology services in these felds are not a priority in the Czech Republic - nor are they a conceptual and stable aspect of addicton care. The status of these programs is therefore usually fuctuatng and currently not well mapped. The aims of this research were: to describe the current situaton of addictology services within nightlife setngs in the Czech Republic; obtain basic data on the programs that currently operate in this context; describe provided interventons and their scope of reach; and provide an elementary overview of the nature of services and their limits or barriers of the further development. As a method of data collecton, a questonnaire was used among programs operatng in and around entertainment, as well as low-threshold programs in the Czech Republic. The study was conducted using the Computer-Assisted-Web-Interview (CAWI) method. The results show that there are 16 programs currently operatng within nightlife setngs. Most of them are primarily low-threshold harm reducton services for actve drug users. Actvites in this area are offered only sporadically and not prioritzed, which results in limited effectveness and obstacles to further...
Comparison of smoking patterns of different population groups - implications for interventions.
Kilibarda, Biljana ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Kachlík, Petr (referee) ; Degkwitz, Peter (referee)
Background: Smokingprevalencein Serbiaishighbothamonggeneralandvulnerable populations.Interventionsshouldbeevidencebasedandinlinewithneedsofeachpopulation group. Thehighestprevalenceofsmokingisamongvulnerablegroups,whereinterventions beyondthoseaimedatgeneralpopulationarerequired.Aims: Toanalyzeandcompare smokingprevalenceanditspatterns,exposuretotobaccosmokeandtheircorrelatesamong generalpopulationandvulnerablegroupsandtoidenitfygapsandneedsformonitoringand policy.Materialandmethods:Secondaryanalysisofdataobtainedthroughdifferentsurveys implementedin2013and2014wasconducted. Databasesfromthreegeneralpopulation surveysandsixsurveysamongselectedvulnerablegroups(prisoners, menhavingsexwith men,sexworkers,peoplelivingwithHIV,Romayouth,institutionalizedchildren)wereused. Results:Datashowhighsmokingprevalenceamongadults(34.7%)withgenderdifferences. Lowersocioeconomicstatusisthestrongestfactorassociatedwithsmokingamongadults. Smokingprevalenceisthehighestintheagegroup35-45years(47.0%).AmongSerbian youth,perceivedavailabilityandbeingtaughtinschoolabouttobaccoareimportantcorrelates ofsmoking. Morethanhalfofadultsandyouthareexposedtotobaccosmokeatvarious places.SmokingissociallyhighlyacceptableinSerbiansocietyandriskperceptionisatlow level....
Injecting drug use and other infectious-related risks among prisoners - situation and prevention
Vašíčková, Jana ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Hönigová, Karolína (referee)
Prisons are a risk environment in terms of presence of injecting drug use and infectious diseases. Prisoners should be able to access harm reduction programs. Within the framework of the prevention of the spread of infectious diseases among prisoners, a pilot project (HA-REACT) was implemented during which there were condom vending machines installed in 2 randomly selected departments of Prague-Pankrác Prison. I was able to get involved in the project implementation. The aim of my research was to determine the incidence rate of infectious diseases and risk behaviour among prisoners in the Prague-Pankrác prison. The investigated risk behaviour concerned the injecting drug use, sharing equipment for injecting drug use, practising of sex and the use of condoms. Interest was also paid to using and evaluating the condom vending machines at the end of the 1 month period during which they were available to the prisoners. Within the framework of the evaluation of the pilot distribution of condoms, the NMS conducted a questionnaire survey at 2 prisons, the evaluation of which was provided to me. The respondents of the questionnaire were prisoners who had a condom vending machine available for 1 month. I divided the respondents into 3 age groups, picked out questions from the questionnaire which I had...
Alcohol use among university students of physical education and sport
Vařeková, Zuzana ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Chomynová, Pavla (referee)
BACKGROUND: University studies take place during the end of the risk period of adolescence and early adulthood, which is also related to alcohol use. The students of sport schools and fields are also at risk. Athletes report excessive alcohol use, even though sport is generally associated with healthy lifestyle. OBJECTIVES: The thesis was focused on experience with alcohol use among students of Faculty of Physical Education and Sport at Charles University and its relation with frequency and type of physical aktivity. METHODS: The research was designed as a cross-sectional study. The sample was formed by students who studied the academic fields of Physical eduction and Sport and Physiotherapy in the full-time bachelor's programme in Czech language in academic year 2017/2018. The sample was obtained by total selection. The questionnaire consisted of standard alcohol use questions from the ESPAD study (Chomynová et al., 2016) and screening questionnaries CAGE (Erwing, 1984) and ASC (Moskalewicz & Sieroslawski, 2010). The questionnaires were filled in by respondents themselves. The sample consisted of 317 students, the response rate was 62 %. The demographic characteristics of the sample corresponded to the general population. A descriptive analysis was implemented in subgroups of non-athletes...
Binge drinking among university students in Prague
Kostrábová, Mária ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Chomynová, Pavla (referee)
Current situation: Abroad, binge drinking among university students is very frequent. Mostly in the USA, 60% of students from 18 to 22 years of age drink alcohol. Almost 2 of 3 out of them engaged in binge drinking once a week at minimum rate (CollegeAIM,2017). Annual reports on alcohol consumption are issued in Czech Republic. These reports are not focused on university students. Goal: The purpose of my research is to find out amount and potential patterns in alcohol consumption among university students in Prague, with its main focus on binge drinking. Survey sample: Non-randomly chosen 891 respondents, who fulfilled inclusion criterion (attending university in Prague) and were willing to participate in the study (convenient sample). Methodology: Online cross-sectional survey among students distributed via social network Facebook. A descriptive analysis was conducted. Outcomes: Sample of 891 respondents consisted of 501 women and 390 men with the average age 21,6 years. They were attending 11 universities, from witch most of them, 27%, were from ČVUT (Czech Technical University) 26,8% were from UK (Charles University); 23,7% were from VŠE (University of Economics) and 17,4% were VŠCHT (University of Chemistry and Technology). The most of the respondents drunk alcohol once or twice a week in last...
Residential social care centers with special regime for substance abusers and persons at risk of substance use
Černíková, Tereza ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Janíková, Barbara (referee)
Background: Substance abuse is usually associated with young people, but occurs also among elderly for whom the abuse of alcohol and other substances poses an increased risk of a whole range of health and social harms. The current system of addictological care in the Czech Republic is not systematically focused on the target group of elderly and this target group is rather at the edge of attention. Nevertheless, in the Czech Republic there are social services, residential social care centres with special regime for elderly people with a dependency problem. These programs are similar to the nursing homes for aging drug users known from abroad. Aims: The aim of this work is to describe the characteristics of residential social care centres with special regime for substance abusers and persons at risk of substance use in the Czech Republic in the areas of clients of the facilities, methods of work with the target group, personnel and funding of the facilities. Methods: An on-line cross-sectional questionnaire study and descriptive data analysis were conducted. According to the Registry of Social Service Providers in the Czech Republic there is 16 residential social care centres with special regime for substance abusers and persons at risk of substance use, all of them were chosen for the study....
Attitudes of tobacco smokers towards health warnings on packages of tobacco products introduced in 2016
Červenková, Agáta ; Kulhánek, Adam (advisor) ; Mravčík, Viktor (referee)
Background: In the tobacco industry, cigarette packaging has always been a marketing instrument that responds to new trends in fashion and taste, but it also actively helps create and endorse these trends. A combined Health warning on cigarette packages has proven to be the least financially demanding tobacco control solution, which affects more or less all tobacco users. Aim: The aim of the present study is to look into the opinions and responses of Czech smokers in relation to the Directive 2014/40/EU of the European Parliament and of The Council of 3 April 2014 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco and related products. Methods: The data was collected using quantitative-qualitative online questionnaire survey among the customers of the "Relay". Volunteers were recruited in the shop, consent with study participation was obtained and the questionnaire was sent to their email addresses. Overall, 283 questionnaires were sent out, out of which 276 were included in the final analysis. In terms of gender, women were prevalent (54%), with men constituting 45%. Two individuals left the gender field blank. The mean age of participants was 37. Results: The results imply that the...
Changes on the opiate scene in the Czech Republic after 1990 and analysis of current situation among problem opioid users: a survey of clients in Czech low-threshold treatment programmes
Malinovská, Jana ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Janíková, Barbara (referee)
Opioid use among problem drug users in the CR can be divided into several developmental periods, starting with the heroin epidemic after 1990 with the decline of methamphetamine use and followed by leakage of buprenorphine products to the black market. There is currently a continuous use of buprenorphine from the black market and an increase in use of opioid analgesics. The theoretical part of the work was concerned with the development of opioid use in the Czech Republic after 1990 and with the trends during the years from 1990 until the present. The practical part consisted of a cross-sectional study; a semi structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The research sample was made of 68 clients who had previously used an opioid drug and visited the Prague contact centres Drop In, o.p.s. and Stage 5, Progressive, o.p.s. where the data were collected during December 2016 and February 2017. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The most used opioids in the last month were Subutex®, Suboxone® and heroin, to the lesser extent opium and fentanyl. Czech "braun", methadone, Vendal®, morphine and Addnok® were used only sporadically. Respondents had also experience with use of other opioids, such as Palladone®, Tramal®, Ravata® and codeine. The most common form of drug application...
Prevalence and patterns of alcohol use and efficacy of personalised feedback - community intervention study
Liška, Jiří ; Mravčík, Viktor (advisor) ; Drbohlavová, Barbora (referee)
Risk drinking in all directions is confirmed by a set of solid scientific evidence. It has an impact on both the health of the individual and his social life and the people around him. Most of the effects are evident in people who drink often high doses of alcohol. An important factor is thus both the frequency and amount of alcohol consumed, which together form the pattern of alcohol use, which geographically and culturally different. Alcohol use is trying to regulate government through alcohol treatment measures, such as increasing the price of alcohol, strict rules regarding driving under the influence. The aim of this study was to explore the status and patterns of alcohol use on the territory of a small village Jindřichovice the Region, and to determine the short-term effects of a single dose of personal feedback ties on risk alcohol consumption on people living there. Studies show that personal feedback associated with short interventions are effective means for reducing alcohol use. Intervention was conducted controlled field study in a group of 111 people (63 men, 48 women) aged 20-76 years (mean 46 years), which were detected using a questionnaire quantities consumed each day in the previous week. Respondents were before the first polling randomly divided into 2 groups according to the...
Substance use and gambling among children in juvenile detention (diagnostic) centres in the Czech Republic
Kovaříková, Veronika ; Drbohlavová, Barbora (advisor) ; Mravčík, Viktor (referee)
Background: Various studies describe the emergence of addiction as a negative interplay of bio- psycho- social factors. It was found that children and adolescents who get into diagnos- tic institutions are exposed to multiple factors that increase the likelihood of developing problematic behaviours, substance abuse and gambling than the general population. It is thus likely that in the future they will be more vulnerable to addiction than the general population. Objectives: Main goals of this research were to provide an overview of the situation of sub- stance abuse among children and adolescents in diagnostic institutes in the Czech Republic and to compare selected data with results of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs of 2011 (ESPAD). Another objective was to find the specifics of drug abuse and gambling in clients of diagnostic centres in different parts of the Czech Republic. Methods: Data for this study were collected by the interviewer using a questionnaire, which was inspired by the questionnaire from the ESPAD survey and was also extended to include issues related to gambling. Data were processed by descriptive analysis in MS Excel. Results: The results show that boys use addictive substances and play betting games more often than girls. Daily smoking was...

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