National Repository of Grey Literature 7 records found  Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The genetic background of obesity and its treatment with bariatric surgery
Lischková, Olga ; Bendlová, Běla (advisor) ; Šeda, Ondřej (referee) ; Mráz, Miloš (referee)
Obesity is a frequent metabolic disease that causes many other health and socioeconomic complications. Obesity arises due to excessive energy intake and decrease in energy expenditure, which is a conseqence of contemporary lifestyle. Moreover, obesity has a strong genetic component. Common obesity is polygenic, multifactorial disease, in which individual genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies, conducted between 2006-09, led to the discovery of dozens of gene loci that predispose individuals to obesity. The strongest signals were registered for polymorphisms in FTO (fat mass and obesity-associated) and near a gene MC4R (melanocortin 4 receptor). However, the contributions of these variations on the phenotype of obesity are very small, therefore, it is necessary to validate the results of such robust studies. It is very important to uncover the effects of genetic variants for understanding the molecular mechanisms of energy metabolism. The studies presented in this thesis refer about the impact of polymorphisms in selected genes on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of the patients of the Institute of Endocrinology and of healthy volunteers who underwent functional tests. Our cohort includes a representative sample of Czech children (COPAT...
Immunointerventional therapy of autoimmune diabetes with recent oncet in NOD mice.
Vargová, Lenka ; Saudek, František (advisor) ; Štechová, Kateřina (referee) ; Mráz, Miloš (referee)
Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease caused by autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. The theory of the disease onset is derived from study of a disease course in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, in which the diabetes occurs due to a dysregulation of the immune system. Experimental and clinical studies showed that the autoimmunity may be abrogated by immune intervention, which if initiated early enough may at least slow down the ongoing beta cells lost and preserve residual insulin secretion. But immune intervention alone is not sufficient to restore normoglycemia in the majority of cases. Several interventional studies showed that stimulation of proliferation and/or regeneration of beta cells are necessary to restore normoglycemia in animal models. Aim of the study: To find out, if the combination of a potent immunosuppression (murine anti-thymocyte globulin (mATG), gusperimus) together with stimulation of islet regeneration (sitagliptin) will be able to slow down or reverse the course of the disease. Another aim is to identify the mechanism by which the substances act. Material and methods: All experiments were performed in female NODShiLtJ (H2g7 ) mice. The following parameters were examined at day 0, 7, 14 and 28: blood glucose, subpopulations of...
Enteral nutrition in oncology patients
Šulcová, Jana ; Křížová, Jarmila (advisor) ; Mráz, Miloš (referee)
This bachelor thesis considers possibilities of enteral nutrition and its influence on life quality of oncological patients. The thesis consists of a theoretical and an experimental part. The theoretical part compiles the issue of malnutrition and nutritional support with emphasis on enteral nutrition. It deals with malnutrition in oncology and its solution. In the experimental part, a study of influence of enteral nutrition on life quality of oncological patients was conducted. A question was, how health condition, life quality and energy intake of patients are changed after one month of enteral nutrition use. The survey includes a physical examination, measuring patients with a machine Bodystat Quadscan 4000, filling up a questionnaire, evaluation of laboratory tests, and analysis of the patient's diet. The results of the study prove positive influence of enteral nutrition on health condition of patients with respect to laboratory tests. According to the questionnaire, the life quality of patients increased and the diet report shows increased energy intake. The physical examination results and Bodystat measurements did not prove positive influence of enteral nutrition.
Novel metabolic regulators and proinflammatory factors in the etiopathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity: the influence of pharmacological and dietary interventions
Mráz, Miloš ; Haluzík, Martin (advisor) ; Šenolt, Ladislav (referee) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee)
NOVEL METABOLIC REGULATORS AND PROINFLAMMATORY FACTORS IN THE ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS AND OBESITY: THE INFLUENCE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL AND DIETARY INTERVENTIONS MUDr. Miloš Mráz Doctoral Thesis ABSTRACT (EN) Identifying novel factors involved in the etiopathogenesis of obesity, diabetes mellitus and their complications has become one of the primary scopes of metabolic research in the last years. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of recently discovered metabolic and inflammatory regulators including fibroblast growth factors 19 and 21 and chemotactic cytokines in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). A total number of 182 patients were included into the study. They were divided into 3 groups - patients with obesity but without type 2 diabetes mellitus, individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthy control normal-weight subjects. Selected interventions included 2 to 3 weeks of very-low-calorie diet (VLCD - energy content 2500 kJ/day), 3 months of administration of PPARα receptor agonist fenofibrate and acute hyperinsulinemia during hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. Our results indicate that the increase of circulating FGF-21 levels after VLCD and fenofibrate treatment could contribute to positive metabolic effects of these...
Affect of bariatric treatment of diabetes compensation
Zemčáková, Simona ; Matoulek, Martin (advisor) ; Mráz, Miloš (referee)
This bachelor thesis deals with problems of obesity, diabetes mellitus and subsequent medical complications. We will focus on topic of obesity in the theoretical part. Obesity has become a global epidemic. In this thesis we will focus on the treatment of obesity and the follow up topic of diabetes mellitus in great detail. Diabetes mellitus counts as a disease of obesity. Diabetes mellitus causes grave illness when we do not keep to regime measures. Successful changes lifestyle, eating habits and increased physical activity have a positive impact on the health of the patient. If these measure do not help to improve the patient's health, then we turn to surgical treatment. We will compare the affect of different methods with metabolic parameters. The 54 patients participated in the scientific research, there of 33 diabetics and 21 nondiabetics. It was caused by a significiant decrease in weight reduction in both groups. The method of gastric bypass showed the biggest affect in weight reduction by group of diabetics. The weight loss is 32,6 kg after two years. The method of sleeve gastrectomy reduced blood glucose the best in the years after the surgical intervetion. From blood glucose 7,27 mmol/l to 5,62 mmol/l. The same method has a good affect in decrease of glycated hemoglobin. From 6,09 % to...

See also: similar author names
1 MRÁZ, Marek
3 Mráz, Martin
3 Mráz, Matěj
1 Mráz, Michal
7 Mráz, Milan
3 Mráz, Miroslav
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