National Repository of Grey Literature 18 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Possibilities of using expert systems and mathematical 3D modeling in treament of cysts in maxillofacial region
Mahdian, Nima ; Dostálová, Taťjána (advisor) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee) ; Saic, Stanislav (referee)
Dentistry and medicine as part of empirical sciences, need to constantly develop in scientific field since the tasks it is facing today were unthinkable to solve few decades ago. Hence, dentistry is calling a greater improvement and demanding a more effective and long-term functionality. Massive expansion of scientific research, new methods and opportunities represent a considerable amount of information to be efficiently processed. Despite the fact that the human brain is still the most advanced yet it has its own limitations. The development of artificial intelligence and mathematical modeling provides us with solutions to address and replace those limits. In areas where the human brain has reached its limits (fatigue, the amount of data, agility etc.) artificial intelligence including expert systems is being increasingly promoted. It is clear that expert systems has found its place in a variety of industries ranging from banking to geology. Also, medicine is not an exception and is constantly progressing by several expert systems for decision support in daily clinical practice. Mathematical modeling helps us to work with emphasis on long-term performance. We have the advantage to prepare everything in 3D models. Sometimes we can use a mathematical model such as conducting operations and...
Evaluation of tooth preparation using Er: YAG laser in comparison with other preparation methods
Bučková, Michaela ; Dostálová, Taťjána (advisor) ; Racek, Jaroslav (referee) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee) ; Smrčka, Pavel (referee)
Er: YAG laser is a new method of preparation that promises gentler and more accurate dental treatment. Its specific characteristics is large absorption of the beam in the water and a small absorption in the tissue without the thermal effect. Therefore the treatment is safer and effectiver. The research has the aim in its theoretical - cognitive part to assess its advantages in comparison with treaditional treatment method - drill. As an essential element will be evaluation of caries lesion in vitro and in vivo. The size of the cavity will be judged on, the shape of developing a smear layer and retention surface in relation to the filling and the . The extracted teeth will be scanned in electronic microscope to assess the formation of contact and non-contact preparation, focusing on the shape and size of the prepared lesion in relation to modern filling materials - low viscosity composites. Extensive research supported by the Ministry of Health (IGA : 9991-4 and 13351-4) that focuses on the the use of various therapeutic methods in the treatment of special needs patients. Dental treatment of a special needs patients is expensive and time-consuming than conventional dental treatment. Therefore, clinical application of theoretical cognitive part will create a electronical support system for the...
2D and 3D models based on patients temporomandibular joint diseases
Hliňáková, Petra ; Dostálová, Taťjána (advisor) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee) ; Hrušák, Daniel (referee)
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is one of the most complex joints in the body. Its harmony is established by coordination between occlusion, muscle, and joint. Changing lifestyles, decreasing physical activity, which is increasing the number of degenerative joint diseases of various etiologies, and certain dental procedures, are increasing the number of patients complaining of pain or other problems in their temporomandibular joints. Estimated 42% of the population is affected and 2-5,5 % is seeking treatment. Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are clinical problems that involve the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joints and associated anatomical structures. Typical signs and symptoms of TMD are facial pain, clicking or crepitation of the TMJs, limited jaw opening capacity and deviation in the movement patterns of the mandible. The basis of successful treatment is a determination of the patient's causal problems. The analysis is based on the model of the ideal biomechanics of TMJ. The rehabilitation of temporomandibular joint disorders needs comprehensive long-term therapy based mainly on physical, surgical, and prosthetic treatment. Detailed knowledge about the function and morphology of temporomandibular joint are necessary for clinical evaluation and treatment of temporomandibular...
Molecular genetic characteristics of salivary gland tumors in differential diagnosis and prognosis prediction
Hauer, Lukáš ; Skálová, Alena (advisor) ; Laco, Jan (referee) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee)
Molecular genetic characteristics of salivary gland tumors in differential diagnosis and prognosis prediction Abstract: In the presented manuscript the author summarizes the current knowledge on molecular biomarkers of salivary gland cancer, focusing on tumor-type specific fusion oncogenes and their use as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers. In detail, the author deals with adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC), the second most common salivary gland cancer. New facts of its biological behavior as well as new fusion oncogenes probably responsible for its carcinogenesis were described in the last few years. A retrospective case series evaluating 27 patients suffering from AdCC, who were treated at the University Hospital in Pilsen in the last 30 years (1986- 2016), is presented in this study. The following characteristics were observed: age, gender, tumor location, clinical stage at diagnosis, presence of regional and distant metastases, tumor grade, duration of follow-up, treatment and outcomes. Detection of the 1p36 deletion and the t(6;9)(q22-23;p23-24) chromosomal translocation resulting in the MYB-NFIB gene fusion were performed. The incidence of AdCC in minor salivary glands, submandibular gland, parotid gland and sublingual gland was 41 %, 26 %, 22 % and 11% respectively. The following staging...
The value of endoscopy of the salivary glands in the prevention of chronic disease
Hostička, Lubor ; Skálová, Alena (advisor) ; Slípka, Jaroslav (referee) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee)
The author of this work deals with the problems of the sialolithiasis. He summarizes current knowledge of the etiology of the disease, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. There are described conventional therapeutic approaches, but the main part is dedicated to current practices which are used after the introduction of new technology-sialoendoscopy. The endoscopic technique is described in this work, the evaluation of its benefits, but also its limits. The author's efforts for conservative approach to the issue sialolithiasis, the exact localization of the sialith and extraction with preservation of the salivary gland is based on publications in the scientific literature. He documents this procedure with the resultes of his own research. There is evaluated using sialoendoscopy in treatment of the sialolithiasis in cases where the sialolith is located in hilum of the submandibular gland. This localization was in the past often an indication for extirpation of the submandibular gland. The author statistically rates files of extirpated submandibular glands in the author's workplace in two five-years periods. The first period is in the time when the sialoendoscopy is not used for examination and treatment of the sialolithiasis yet. In the second period the sialoendoscopy is available, there is also...
Dental care of patients after surgical therapy of inborn oro-facial clefts 3D technologies in diagnostics and therapy of cleft patients
Kašparová, Magdaléna ; Dostálová, Taťjána (advisor) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee) ; Roček, Miloslav (referee)
Patients with orofacial defects, inborn or acquired, isolated or in combination with other handicaps in syndroms, suffer from various problems including psychological problems. Morphological changes within these handicaps burden not only the patients themselves, but also their families. Among the main problems are difficulties with feeding, speech or breathing. Anomalies in number or position of deciduous and permanent teeth, development of jaws and dental arches are often present. Multidisciplinary aproach is necessary when solving all of the tasks and the multidiciplinary team consits of experts from field of plastic surgery, foniatry, speach therapist, dentist and oral surgeons. Surgical therapy involves early primary reconstruction of cleft lip and causes necessity of very detailed therapy planing and evaluation. It is very important to create systematic aproach to dental care including valuace diagnostic methods. In the work presented there will be variol methods of diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment introduced with the aim of evaluating modern methods including 3D printing and digital technologies and a valid alternative to traditional methods (plaster casts). Key words: 3D printing, cleft lip and palate, dentistry
Diagnostics and therapy of selected head and neck malignancies and premalignancies with photo nic medicine
Vlk, Marek ; Mazánek, Jiří (advisor) ; Dostálová, Taťjána (referee) ; Dundr, Pavel (referee)
Diagnostics and therapy of selected head and neck malignancies and premalignancies with photonic therapy (PDT) Introduction: Lasers are used widely in the modern-day medicine, including the head and neck surgery. Our objective was to evaluate the use of laser intervention in leucoplakia treatment, during the laser interstisial hyperthermia (LITT) and in the modification of PDT. Materials and methods: In all the indications, the diode laser emitting at the wavelength 980 nm was used. Altogether we treated 76 leucoplakia lesions in 66 pacients by laser vaporization. LITT was applied in 32 oncological patients with more-advanced-stage head and neck tumors (9 parameters were observed). 74 BCC (sBCC/nBCC) lesions in 33 pacients were treated with modified PDT. We observed not only the objective aspects (the efficacy of the treatment) but also the subjective therapy evaluation by the patients themselves. Results: The efficacy of the leucoplakia treatment was 94,7 %. LITT influenced positively all the 9 observed parameters. The resultant efficacy of the PDT was influenced positively by the laser intervention too. The success rate of the combined method was almost 98 % for sBCC and 92 % for nBCC (measured by the number of lesions). The laser intervention was tolerated very well by the patients. Conclusion: We...
Cone Be am CT in dentistry: Motion artifacts and their reduction
Hanzelka, Tomáš ; Beneš, Jiří (advisor) ; Charvát, František (referee) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee)
Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) allows effective 3D imaging in dentistry. CBCT consists of a planar detector and a x-ray source that rotate once around patient`s head. The x-ray beam is cone-shaped and is directed through the whole volume of interest. All the data needed are obtained during a single rotation of the source and detector. This rotation takes from several to several tens of seconds, and during this time the CBCT captures several hundred of 2D images. They represent different points of view on the region of interest and are later reconstructed to form a 3D data set. The biggest advantage of CBCT is that it can produce 3D image using at radiation doses similar to those of conventional diagnostic methods used in dentistry (Pauwels et al., 2010). In the experimental part of our experiment, we address one of the biggest weaknesses of CBCT - patient movement during scanning which has a major impact on the image quality and is currently the main limiting factor in the further development of this technology. In the first part of our experiment, we recorded movements of patients and CBCT scanner using a high speed camera and subsequently analyzed the data in MatLab program. Significant level of patient motion as well as motion of CBCT scanner was demonstrated. Motion was highest at the...
System to support decision making in dental implantology - quality of life of patients with dental implants
Kříž, Pavel ; Dostálová, Taťjána (advisor) ; Mazánek, Jiří (referee) ; Zvárová, Jana (referee)
Title: System to support decission making in dental implantology - quality of life of patients with dental implants Author: MUDr. Pavel Kříž Department: Paediatric Stomatology of 2nd Medical School and Faculty Hospital Motol, V Úvalu 84, 150 06 Prague 5 Supervisor: Prof. MUDr. Taťjana Dostálová, DrSc., MBA Supervisor's e-mail: tatjana.dostalova@fnmotol.cz Dental implants are the method of choice in the treatment of missing tooth/teeth replacement. Implant therapy must be preceded by a detailed examination and the overall treatment plan. As an aid for decision-making for dentists was created decision-making scheme, which gradually, logically and schematically guides the dentists in this particular situation. Health is closely related to the quality of life. Our work evaluates the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with dental implants. The aim of our study was to determine whether treatment with a dental implant(s) improve(s) OHRQoL. We created a questionnaire to determine the quality of life before and after implantation. In our study, we evaluated only patients who were treated by the only one implantological system to eliminate the influence of other systems on the quality of the results of the study; we evaluated a total of 297 implants. It was assessed a total of 97...
Evaluation of the stability of osteosynthesis of mandibular ramus sagittal split osteotomy
Nieblerová, Jiřina ; Mazánek, Jiří (advisor) ; Dostálová, Taťjána (referee) ; Bulík, Oliver (referee)
Orthognatic surgery deals with congenital and acquired dentoalveolar or skeletal deformities of the face. An unfavourable downward rotation of a mandible and posterior vertical maxillary excess cause an anterior open bite, which is characterized by excessive anterior facial height in the lower third, a gap between the incisors in maximal occlusion and a large mandibular angle. Osteotomy (mainly Le Fort I osteotomy or bilateral sagittal split osteotomy of the mandibular ramus - BSSO), ostectomy or distraction osteogenesis are performed to correct the orthognatic deformities. Osteosynthetic materials based on titanium or bioresorbable materials are used in the form of miniplates with monocortical screws, or bicortical screws are utilized to fix the bony fragments. Stability of the new jaws position is the main criterion for success. Relapse causes a loss of occlusion and consequently functional and aesthetic disorders. Relapse consists of skeletal and dental factors. Skeletal relapse is usually divided into early and long-term relapse. BSSO with counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation of the occlusal plane alone was traditionally considered to be the least stable treatment method. Some authors suggest the use of two miniplates on each side of the osteotomy, but we have not found scientific proof of the...

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